Definition of apparent, true, and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in pigs☆

@article{Stein2007DefinitionOA,
  title={Definition of apparent, true, and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in pigs☆},
  author={Hans H. Stein and Malcolm F. Fuller and Paul J. Moughan and Bernard S{\'e}ve and Rainer Mosenthin and Alfons J M Jansman and J. A. Fern{\'a}ndez and Cornelis de Lange},
  journal={Livestock Science},
  year={2007},
  volume={109},
  pages={282-285}
}
Measures of ileal digestibility (ID) are used routinely as estimates of amino acid (AA) bio-availability in pig feed ingredients. Values for ID may be expressed as apparent (AID), standardized (SID), or true (TID). Values for AID are calculated by deducting the total ileal outflow of AA (the sum of endogenous losses (IAA(end)) and non-digested dietary AA) from dietary AA intake. The IAA(end) may be separated into basal losses, which are not influenced by feed ingredient composition, and… 
Effect of feed intake level on ileal digestibilities of crude protein and amino acids in diets for piglets.
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Because the voluntary feed intake is highly variable in piglets after weaning, comparison of ileal AA digestibilities between and within studies may be confounded by variations in feed intake level.
Evidence for validity of ileal digestibility coefficients in monogastrics.
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Additivity of values for apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in mixed diets fed to growing pigs.
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The results of this experiment demonstrate that the digestibility coefficients for a mixed diet containing low-protein feed ingredients, such as corn, are more accurately predicted using SID than AID.
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Evaluation of Apparent Ileal and Standardized Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acid in Feed Ingredients to Alterate the Protein Sources for Weaned Pigs
This study was conducted to evaluate the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids in feed ingredients for use as protein sources in swine feed. A
Determination of additivity of apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in diets containing multiple protein sources fed to growing pigs.
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The results substantiate the notion that SID of AA are more accurate than AID for predicting ileal digestibility of AA in mixed diets containing multiple protein sources.
Determination of standardized ileal crude protein and amino acid digestibilities in protein supplements for piglets.
TLDR
Digestibility values measured in the present study can be used to formulate diets for piglets based on standardized ileal digestible contents of CP and AA.
Protein quality of pig diets : processing effects on amino acid digestibility and post-absorptive utilization
The increasing world population and per capita income imposes a risk for protein scarcity. It is, therefore, necessary to use current ingredients more efficiently which includes the accurate
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Sound feed formulation is dependent upon precise evaluation of energy and nutrients values in feed ingredients. Hence the methodology to determine the digestibility of energy and nutrients in
Evaluating endogenous loss and standard ileal digestibility of amino acids in response to the graded severity levels of E. maxima infection
TLDR
The study demonstrated that NFD significantly reduced lesion scores, underestimating the true endogenous losses of birds fed regular diets and linearly increased the endogenous amino acids in response to the graded E. maxima challenge.
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References

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The adoption of the terminology and methodology proposed in this paper should facilitate the exchange of unambiguous information on amino acid (AA) availability and ileal digestibility (ID) in feed
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TLDR
It is recommended that basal ileal endogenous losses of AA should be measured in digestibility experiments using a defined protein-free diet and that these losses are reported with observed AID and SID values.
Additivity of values for apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in mixed diets fed to growing pigs.
TLDR
The results of this experiment demonstrate that the digestibility coefficients for a mixed diet containing low-protein feed ingredients, such as corn, are more accurately predicted using SID than AID.
Evaluation through literature data of the amount and amino acid composition of basal endogenous crude protein at the terminal ileum of pigs
TLDR
The use of more accurate and additive ileal digestibility values of AAs in feed ingredients improves diet formulation for pigs, in which AA supply via the diet is matched with AA requirements.
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TLDR
Initially, the apparent ileal amino acid digestibilities increased sharply then gradually reached their plateaus, after which there were no further increases and the digestibility values became independent of the dietary amino acid levels.
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Abstract An in vitro method for the prediction of protein and amino acid digestibility at ileal level is described. Values of in vitro digestibility of protein in 15 common feedstuffs were all higher
Effect of feed intake on endogenous losses and amino acid and energy digestibility by growing pigs.
TLDR
It is demonstrated that the FI level significantly influenced AID, SID, and IAA(end) for CP and AA, and pigs used to measure AA digestibility coefficients and I AA( end) should be fed at a level that is close to what is used under commercial conditions.
Digestibility of amino acids in swine: Results and their practical applications. A review
Abstract Many studies have been carried out on the topic of amino acid digestibility in swine during the last two decades. The ileal analysis method should be the method of choice for determining
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TLDR
The results suggest that, in digestibility trials, an assessment of the basal ileal endogenous AA losses must be performed on each pig to correct the apparent ileo-rectal AA digestibility data.
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TLDR
The contribution of endogenous to total protein in ileal digesta was calculated using the 15N-isotope dilution technique for leucine and isoleucine, respectively using the method described in a previous publication.
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