Defining the morphologic features and products of cell disassembly during apoptosis

  title={Defining the morphologic features and products of cell disassembly during apoptosis},
  author={Rochelle Tixeira and Sarah Caruso and Stephanie Paone and Amy A Baxter and Georgia K. Atkin-Smith and Mark D. Hulett and Ivan K. H. Poon},
Although the establishment of specific terminologies to describe apoptotic morphologies/products is beneficial to the field, inappropriate use can also lead to confusion and misinterpretation of function. The reason for misuse can be due to (i) unclear definition of terms, (ii) a single term being used for multiple apoptotic morphologies/products, and (iii) multiple terms being used to describe a single morphologic feature/product. For example, Rubartelli et al. [3] demonstrated the importance… 
Defining the role of cytoskeletal components in the formation of apoptopodia and apoptotic bodies during apoptosis
This work characterised the presence of F-actin and microtubules in a subset of apoptopodia generated by T cells and monocytes and demonstrated apop topodia as a novel type of membrane protrusion that could be formed in the absence of actin polymerisation and microTube assembly.
Apoptotic Bodies: Mechanism of Formation, Isolation and Functional Relevance.
The current understandings of the molecular mechanisms involved in regulating apoptotic cell disassembly, techniques for ApoBD isolation, and the functional roles of Apo BDs in physiological and pathological settings are discussed.
Determining the contents and cell origins of apoptotic bodies by flow cytometry
It is demonstrated that ApoBDs are not homogeneous and can be divided into specific subclasses based on intracellular contents and cell surface markers, and shared the same surface markers as their cell of origin.
Monocyte apoptotic bodies are vehicles for influenza A virus propagation
It is found that apoptotic bodies formed when Influenza A (IAV)-infected monocytes undergo apoptosis contain components of IAV and can contribute to IAV propagation in vitro and in mice, and stimulate an innate and adaptive immune response.
Disassembly of dying cells in diverse organisms
This review will describe morphologic features leading to apoptotic cell disassembly, as well as its regulation and function in mammalian cells and in other eukaryotic cells.
Gasdermin E Does Not Limit Apoptotic Cell Disassembly by Promoting Early Onset of Secondary Necrosis in Jurkat T Cells and THP-1 Monocytes
GSDME is not involved in regulating secondary necrosis in human T cells and monocytes, and also unlikely in epithelial cells, indicating that the function of GSDME in regulating membrane permeabilization and cell disassembly during apoptosis may be more limited.
ROCK1 but not LIMK1 or PAK2 is a key regulator of apoptotic membrane blebbing and cell disassembly
Using both pharmacological and CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing based approaches, ROCK1 but not PAK2 or LIMK1 is identified as a key non-redundant positive regulator of apoptotic membrane blebbing as well as ApoBD formation and it is noted that ROCK1 could play a role in regulating the onset of secondary necrosis.
Apoptotic Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles: More Than Just Debris
This review focuses on how the formation of EVs during apoptosis could be a key mechanism of immune modulation by dying cells.
Apoptotic Extracellular Vesicles Ameliorate Multiple Myeloma by Restoring Fas-Mediated Apoptosis.
It is shown that apo EVs can induce multiple myeloma (MM) cell apoptosis and inhibit MM cell growth and a potential for apoEVs to treat MM is suggested.
Endothelial cell apoptosis and the role of endothelial cell-derived extracellular vesicles in the progression of atherosclerosis
To maintain physiological homeostasis, cell turnover occurs every day in the body via a form of programmed cell death called apoptosis. During apoptosis, cells undergo distinct morphological changes


Monitoring the progression of cell death and the disassembly of dying cells by flow cytometry
This protocol uses a combination of A5 and TO-PRO-3 (a commercially available nucleic acid–binding dye that stains early apoptotic and necrotic cells differentially), and a logical seven-stage analytical approach to distinguish six types of particles in a sample, including apoptotic bodies and cells at three different stages of cell death.
Disassembly of the Dying: Mechanisms and Functions.
Serum-dependent processing of late apoptotic cells and their immunogenicity
Data show that cell non-autonomous factors contribute to morphological rearrangements during late apoptosis, and implicate that apoptotic MPs are released to attract phagocytes, while apoptotic cell remnants further process their potentially immunogenic content to prevent an inflammatory response upon secondary necrosis.
The selective engulfment of apoptotic bodies by dendritic cells is mediated by the alpha(v)beta3 integrin and requires intracellular and extracellular calcium.
It is shown that, unlike macrophages, monocyte-derived dendritic cells indeed fail to take up opsonized particles or necrotic cells; however, apoptotic bodies are efficiently engulfed by d endritic cells.
The selective engulfment of apoptotic bodies by dendritic cells is mediated by the αvβ3 integrin and requires intracellular and extracellular calcium
It is shown that, unlike macrophages, monocyte‐derived dendritic cells indeed fail to take up opsonized particles or necrotic cells; however, apoptotic bodies are efficiently engulfed by d endritic cells.
Cytochemical Methods for the Detection of Apoptosis
  • M. Willingham
  • Biology
    The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society
  • 1999
This review attempts to summarize the more recent advances in cytochemical detection of apoptosis and emphasizes some of the pitfalls that confuse the interpretation of results of these methods.
Apoptosis: A Basic Biological Phenomenon with Wide-ranging Implications in Tissue Kinetics
Apoptosis seems to be involved in cell turnover in many healthy adult tissues and is responsible for focal elimination of cells during normal embryonic development, and participates in at least some types of therapeutically induced tumour regression.