Defining and assessing animal pain

@article{Sneddon2014DefiningAA,
  title={Defining and assessing animal pain},
  author={Lynne U. Sneddon and Robert William Elwood and Shelley A. Adamo and Matthew C. Leach},
  journal={Animal Behaviour},
  year={2014},
  volume={97},
  pages={201-212}
}

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The standards for fish perceiving pain are discussed and can be summarized in three parts: the possession of the neural apparatus to detect and process pain; adverse behavioural and physiological responses in vivo to a painful stimulus; and whether the individual has a conscious experience of pain.

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