Defensive stoning by baboons

  title={Defensive stoning by baboons},
  author={William John Hamilton and Ruth E. Buskirk and William H. Buskirk},
REPORTS of the use of tools in offence or defence by wild animals is limited to accounts of chimpanzees throwing branches at conspecifics, potential predators and at human observers1. Anecdotal accounts of stone throwing by baboons2 have been dismissed on the basis of the unreliability of correspondents and the improbability of oriented throwing by a quadruped anatomically incapable of overhand throwing3. In spite of several years of field study elsewhere in Africa, often in rocky terrain… Expand
Aimed throwing of stones by tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella)
It is demonstrated that capuchins have throwing capabilities which are thought to have been associated with early hominid evolution. Expand
Acquisition by a pigtail macaque of behavior patterns beyond the natural repertoire of the species.
  • M. Bertrand
  • Art, Medicine
  • Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie
  • 1976
An analysis of the constraints on learning to control elimination and to give in nonhuman primates shows that only certain components of these behaviors are contraprepared. Expand
Stone-throwing by Japanese macaques: form and functional aspects of a group-specific behavioral tradition.
This first report of a stone-tool-use tradition in Japanese macaques is of direct relevance to the question of the evolution of stone technology in hominids and supports the view that tool-use evolves from initially non-functional behaviors, such as stone handling, which is a form of object play. Expand
Stone Banging by Wild Capuchin Monkeys: An Unusual Auditory Display
  • A. Moura
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Folia Primatologica
  • 2006
Wild groups of Cebus apella libidinosus banging stones to produce sound in a remarkable aggressive display is reported, and it is suggested its primary function is a predator-deterrent behaviour. Expand
“Stone‐grooming” in Macaca fuscata
During study of mother‐infant interactions of Macaca fuscata, a low‐ranking female was observed to use a stone to groom her infant, which appears to fit recent definitions of tool‐use. Expand
How might early hominids have defended themselves against large predators and food competitors
Experiments in which a bait was covered with a shield of thorn branches showed that wild-living lions are highly afraid of thorns and hardly dare to touch them with their paws, which could perhaps indicate that the responses of carnivores which were originally adapted to porcupines, facilitated the use of Thorn branches as defensive weapons among the incipient hominids. Expand
Tube Test in Free-Ranging Japanese Macaques: Use of Sticks and Stones to Obtain Fruit from a Transparent Pipe
Apes excel in tool using (Yerkes and Yerkes 1929). Captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) learned to use bamboo poles as rakes and, when one was too short, to fit two together to form a longer rakeExpand
Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing
The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. Expand
The social organization of Homo ergaster: Inferences from anti-predator responses in extant primates.
It is argued that the social organization of H. ergaster may already have contained many key elements characterizing modern day foragers: male bonding, incipient male-female friendships with food sharing, a tendency toward endogamy, and the presence of large communities that eventually turned into the ethno-linguistic units the authors can still recognize today. Expand
Spontaneous performance of wild baboons on three novel food-access puzzles
The physical cognition of wild savanna baboons is examined, a species that occupies an omnivorous foraging niche in which a variety of embedded food items are extracted and processed and suggests they did not fully comprehend the string’s connective property. Expand


More on Tool-Use Among Primates
that the course of cultural evolution, like that of bio-evolution, is strewn with the wreckage of ingeniously functional dinosaurs. This does not deter us from inquiry into the func­ tionalExpand