Defensive anointing: extended chemical phenotype and unorthodox ecology

Abstract

Many animals acquire substances on their integument from heterospecifics through anointing. In active or self-anointing, animals rub against scent sources or they apply them by appendage or mouth. In passive anointing, animals adsorb emitted chemicals. Most investigators suggest that chemicals appropriated via anointing deter predators, ectoparasites, and… (More)
DOI: 10.1007/s00049-003-0259-8

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