Defensive Development

  title={Defensive Development},
  author={Michelle Boyd},
  journal={Urban Affairs Review},
  pages={751 - 776}
This article expands the standard consumption versus production debate in the gentrification literature by examining the role of racial conflict in neighborhood change. Drawing from historical and ethnographic research, it analyzes gentrification in Douglas/Grand Boulevard, a Black community on Chicago's South Side. It argues that although capital movements and middle-class consumption patterns created opportunities for gentrification, racial ordering politicized it, prompting Blacks to engage… 
Theorizing Gentrification as a Process of Racial Capitalism
Academics largely define gentrification based on changes in the class demographics of neighborhood residents from predominately low-income to middle-class. This ignores that gentrification always
Reproducing race in the gentrifying city: A critical analysis of race in gentrification scholarship
ABSTRACT While the term gentrification in an American context often incorporates racial turnover, the role of race in gentrification remains undertheorized. Employing a critical race lens, this study
From Barrios to Condos: The Effects of Gentrification on Minority Descriptive Representation
Academics, practitioners, and community activists have hotly debated the effects, both positive and negative, of gentrification. Still, political scientists have yet to fully weigh in on the
Gentrification without Segregation? Race, Immigration, and Renewal in a Diversifying City
It is suggested that where arriving immigrants move limits residential selection in gentrification and shifts pressures to low–cost Black neighborhoods, which has implications for the future of racial stratification as cities transform.
Gentrification, Race, and Immigration in the Changing American City
This dissertation examines how gentrification—a class transformation—unfolds along racial and ethnic lines. Using a new conceptual framework, considering the city-level context of immigration and
Black On Both Sides: An Examination of Race and Class in the Ghetto Mecca
From Spike Lee’s School Daze to The Real Housewives of Atlanta, mainstream entertainment has portrayed Atlanta as a “black mecca,” largely due to its consortium of black colleges, expansion of
Retail Gentrification and Race: The Case of Alberta Street in Portland, Oregon
Alberta Street is emblematic of Portland’s image as a city that embraces the “creative class,” ranking high in being “bohemian” and embracing “diversity.” It is a street that has had a decline in
“Chocolate City, Rest in Peace”: White Space–Claiming and the Exclusion of Black People in Washington, DC
Urban sociologists and gentrification scholars have long been interested in examining the combination of structural and micro–level forces that result in the displacement and exclusion of low–income
African Americans, Gentrification, and Neoliberal Urbanization: the Case of Fort Greene, Brooklyn
This article examines the gentrification of Fort Greene, which is located in the western part of black Brooklyn, one of the largest contiguous black urban areas in the USA. Between the late 1960s and
Revisiting the Citadel and the Ghetto
The author examines the relevance of racial discourses to neoliberal urban development occurring in older, former industrial cities in the United States. Rather than treating the production of new


The Downside of Racial Uplift: meaning of gentrification in an African American neighborhood
In the last 20 years, African Americans have changed both their role in and orientation toward gentrification. Where once it was viewed with suspicion, the strategy of attracting middle class
The Politics of Gentrification
The author examines the local dialectics of power associated with gentrification in the community of West Town in Chicago, discussing the process, contentions resulting from opposite interests,
Bitter Fruit: The Politics of Black-Korean Conflict in New York City
An examination of escalating conflicts between Blacks and Koreans in American cities. It focuses on the Flatbush Boycott of 1990, led by Black and Haitian activists against Korean-owned produce
Black Corona: Race and the Politics of Place in an Urban Community
In this study, Steven Gregory examines political culture and activism in an African-American neighbourhood in New York City. Using historical and ethnographic research, he challenges the view that
Racial Uplift? Intra‐Racial Class Conflict and the Economic Revitalization of Harlem and Bronzeville
The study of revitalizing African American urban neighborhoods is needed to understand how race, class, and politics influence community development. While numerous investigations of urban
Stereotypes and Segregation: Neighborhoods in the Detroit Area
Two opposing hypotheses seek to explain why black-white residential segreration persists despite open housing laws. One perspective argues that discriminatory practices in the marketing of real
Making the Second Ghetto: Race and Housing in Chicago, 1940-1960
This book analyses the expansion of Chicago's Black Belt during the period immediately following World War II. Even as the civil rights movement swept the country, Chicago dealt with its rapidly
Toward a Theory of Gentrification A Back to the City Movement by Capital, not People
Abstract Consumer sovereignty hypotheses dominate explanations of gentrification but data on the number of suburbanites returning to the city casts doubt on this hypothesis. In fact, gentrification
What’s Class Got to Do with It?
Community Development and Racial Identity
ABSTRACT: This research documents the importance of class and racial identities to urban community development activities. It explores the symbolic meanings of class and the nature of inter-class
Changing Places: Race, Class, And Belonging In The "New" Harlem
Harlem has possessed class and racial /ethnic diver- sity since the 19th century. However, African American profession- als have been coming to Harlem in unprecedented numbers since the early 1990s.