Defense system in the biliary tract against bacterial infection

@article{Sung2005DefenseSI,
  title={Defense system in the biliary tract against bacterial infection},
  author={J. Y. Sung and John William Costerton and Eldon A. Shaffer},
  journal={Digestive Diseases and Sciences},
  year={2005},
  volume={37},
  pages={689-696}
}
Bacteria can invade the biliary tract by ascending from the duodenum and via the hematogenous route from the hepatic portal venous blood. The sphincter of Oddi, situated at the junction of the biliary tract and the upper gastrointestinal tract, forms an effective mechanical barrier to duodenal reflux and ascending bacterial infection. Conversely, Kupffer cells and the tight junctions between hepatocytes help prevent bacteria and toxic metabolites from entering the hepatobiliary system from the… Expand
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