Defective interfering viruses and their potential as antiviral agents

@article{Marriott2010DefectiveIV,
  title={Defective interfering viruses and their potential as antiviral agents},
  author={Anthony C Marriott and Nigel J. Dimmock},
  journal={Reviews in Medical Virology},
  year={2010},
  volume={20}
}
Defective interfering (DI) virus is simply defined as a spontaneously generated virus mutant from which a critical portion of the virus genome has been deleted. At least one essential gene of the virus is deleted, either in its entirety, or sufficiently to make it non‐functional. The resulting DI genome is then defective for replication in the absence of the product(s) of the deleted gene(s), and its replication requires the presence of the complete functional virus genome to provide the… 
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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Lassa Virus Vaccine Candidate ML29 Generates Truncated Viral RNAs Which Contribute to Interfering Activity and Attenuation
TLDR
This study shows that expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by a tri-segmented form of the mammarenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus was strongly inhibited in ML29-persistently infected cells, and that the magnitude of GFP suppression was dependent on the passage history of the ML 29-persisted infected cells.
Semi-continuous propagation of influenza A virus and its defective interfering particles: analyzing the dynamic competition to select candidates for antiviral therapy
TLDR
It is confirmed that these DIPs exhibit a superior in vitro interfering efficacy than Dips derived from lowly accumulated DI vRNAs and suggest promising candidates for efficacious antiviral treatment.
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References

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In vivo antiviral activity: defective interfering virus protects better against virulent Influenza A virus than avirulent virus.
TLDR
Counter-intuitively, defective interfering virus is most effective against viruses that cause disease with low numbers of particles, i.e. virulent viruses.
Defective interfering viruses and infections of animals.
TLDR
The intimate biochemical dependence of DI virus on standard virus for its replication as well as encapsidation explains why, for the most part, interference is specific for the homologous standard virus.
Antiviral Activity of Defective Interfering Influenza Virus in vivo
TLDR
This chapter is concerned with the transient resistance to experimental influenza in mice which is invoked by treatment with DI influenza viruses, thought that this has clinical potential in preventing influenza virus infection of humans, horses and poultry, all of which are naturally susceptible.
Defective interfering influenza viruses and host cells: establishment and maintenance of persistent influenza virus infection in MDBK and HeLa cells
TLDR
The nature of the influenza DI viral RNA produced from a single clonal stock was essentially identical in all three cells types, suggesting that these cells do not exert a great selective pressure in the amplification of specific DI viral RNAs either at early or late passages.
Protection of mice from lethal influenza: evidence that defective interfering virus modulates the immune response and not virus multiplication.
TLDR
Surprisingly, in view of the accepted mode of action of DI virus interference, multiplication of infectious virus in the lung, production of viral haemagglutinin antigen and neuraminidase, and the distribution and amount of viral antigen in cells were unaffected by the presence of active DI virus.
Structure of Defective-Interfering RNAs of Influenza Viruses and Their Role in Interference
TLDR
The phenomenon of multiplicity-dependent production of noninfectious virus particles has been reported with almost all animal viruses studied to date and probably represents a general phenomenon for all viruses.
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