Defaunation of tropical forests reduces habitat quality for seed‐dispersing bats in Western Amazonia: an unexpected connection via mineral licks

  title={Defaunation of tropical forests reduces habitat quality for seed‐dispersing bats in Western Amazonia: an unexpected connection via mineral licks},
  author={Simon J. Ghanem and Christian Claus Voigt},
  journal={Animal Conservation},
Hunting reduces the overall abundance of larger mammals in many tropical forests with often direct negative consequences such as reduced seed dispersal. In Western Amazonia, legal and illegal hunting practices have a substantial negative impact on populations of larger mammals. Yet, large mammals are important for maintaining so‐called mineral licks; nutrient‐rich muddy depressions that are also used by smaller mammals such as bats for geophagy. Mineral licks seem to play a particularly… 

Impacts of hunting on tropical forests in Southeast Asia.

Evidence from multiple sites indicated animal populations declined precipitously across the region since approximately 1980, and many species are now extirpated from substantial portions of their former ranges, Unless there is a step change in efforts to reduce wildlife exploitation to sustainable levels, the region will likely lose most of its iconic species, andmany others besides, within the next few years.

Mineral lick distribution modeling and NW Amazon conservation planning alternatives

Mineral licks are faunal attractors, whose distribution determines the structure and composition of Amazonian landscapes and the way they are used by wildlife and traditional communities. Research on

Long-term population dynamics of small mammals in tropical dry forests , e ff ects of unusual climate events , and implications for management and conservation ☆

Understanding the consequences of biotic and abiotic variability on population dynamics is fundamental to assessing anthropogenic impacts, such as global climate disruption, on populations and

Loss of endangered frugivores from seed dispersal networks generates severe mutualism disruption

Many tropical seed-dispersing frugivores are facing extinction, but the consequences of the loss of endangered frugivores for seed dispersal is not well understood. We investigated the role of

Stability in a changing world – palm community dynamics in the hyperdiverse western Amazon over 17 years

The findings suggest that until now, local forests in the northwest Amazon may have escaped pressure from climate change, and underlines its uniqueness as a sanctuary for the protection of Amazonian diversity from global change impacts.

Geophagy (rock eating), experimental stress and cognitive idiosyncrasy.

It is suggested that, in natural environmental conditions, "edible" rocks serve as an adaptive tool for recovery from various types of environmental stresses, and are examples of self-medication.



Mineral Licks Attract Neotropical Seed-Dispersing Bats

It is likely that mineral licks are important for Fruit-eating female bats as a mineral source during late pregnancy and lactation by sustaining high population densities of fruit-eating bats that disperse seeds and may have an indirect influence on local plant species richness.

Puddles created by geophagous mammals are potential mineral sources for frugivorous bats (Stenodermatinae) in the Peruvian Amazon

Since sodium is one of the most limiting nutrients for vertebrates in the tropics, licks may function as sources of sodium (or other elements) for bats in the south-eastern Peruvian Amazon, an otherwise mineral-poor landscape.

Hunting Increases Dispersal Limitation in the Tree Carapa procera, a Nontimber Forest Product

  • P. ForgetP. Jansen
  • Environmental Science
    Conservation biology : the journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
  • 2007
The results suggest that the subsistence hunting that usually accompanies seed collection is at the cost of seed dispersal and may contribute to recruitment failure of these nontimber forest products.

Mineral Licks as Diversity Hotspots in Lowland Forest of Eastern Ecuador

Mineral licks are sites where a diverse array of mammals and birds consume soil (geophagy) or drink water, likely for mineral supplementation. The diversity of species that visit such sites makes

Nutrition or Detoxification: Why Bats Visit Mineral Licks of the Amazonian Rainforest

It is concluded that pregnant and lactating fruit-eating bats do not visit mineral licks principally for minerals, but instead to buffer the effects of secondary plant compounds that they ingest in large quantities during periods of high energy demand.

Frugivorous bats drink nutrient- and clay-enriched water in the Amazon rain forest: support for a dual function of mineral-lick visits

Evidence is provided that frugivorous bats ingest soluble mineral nutrients and insoluble soil by consuming soil-enriched water at mineral licks, thus supporting the hypothesis thatfrugivory bats of western Amazonia may derive a dual benefit from drinking water from Mineral licks.

Basin‐Wide Effects of Game Harvest on Vertebrate Population Densities in Amazonian Forests: Implications for Animal‐Mediated Seed Dispersal

A comprehensive meta-analysis of changes in population density or other abundance estimates for 30 mid-sized to large mammal, bird and reptile species in 101 hunted and nonhunted, but otherwise undisturbed, Neotropical forest sites finds frugivorous species showed more marked declines in abundance in heavily hunted sites than seed predators and browsers, regardless of the effects of body size.

Dispersal in a Neotropical tree, Virola flexuosa (Myristicaceae): does hunting of large vertebrates limit seed removal?

The differences in the frugivore assemblage and the number of seeds dispersed from individual trees between two structurally similar forest sites suggest dispersal limitation resulting from a decline in frug Vivore, a hypothesis that seed removal will differ between hunted and non-hunted sites.

Keystone resource (Ficus) chemistry explains lick visitation by frugivorous bats

Results among diets, Ficus chemistry, and lick-water chemistry strongly support the sodium-limitation hypothesis for bat lick use and suggest a mechanistic link between bats and ecosystem engineers that make soil-borne resources available.

Effects of Subsistence Hunting on Vertebrate Community Structure in Amazonian Forests

Subsistence hunting affects vast tracts of tropical wilderness that otherwise remain structurally unaltered, yet distinguishing hunted from nonhunted tropical forests presents a difficult problem