Defaunation in the Anthropocene

  title={Defaunation in the Anthropocene},
  author={Rodolfo Dirzo and Hillary S. Young and Mauro Galetti and Gerardo Ceballos and Nick J. B. Isaac and Ben Collen},
  pages={401 - 406}
We live amid a global wave of anthropogenically driven biodiversity loss: species and population extirpations and, critically, declines in local species abundance. Particularly, human impacts on animal biodiversity are an under-recognized form of global environmental change. Among terrestrial vertebrates, 322 species have become extinct since 1500, and populations of the remaining species show 25% average decline in abundance. Invertebrate patterns are equally dire: 67% of monitored populations… 
Patterns, Causes, and Consequences of Anthropocene Defaunation
Slowing defaunation will require aggressively reducing animal overexploitation and habitat destruction; mitigating climate disruption; and stabilizing the impacts of human population growth and uneven resource consumption.
Impacts of Anthropocene Defaunation on Plant-Animal Interactions
Defaunation, the local decline in animal abundance, the contraction of their range, and global extinction of species, is an overlooked manifestation of the Anthropocene. Available information however
Using the IUCN Red List to map threats to terrestrial vertebrates at global scale
This work uses expert-derived information from the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List on threats to 23,271 species, representing all terrestrial amphibians, birds and mammals, to generate global maps of the six major threats to these groups.
Hunting and Forest Modification Have Distinct Defaunation Impacts on Tropical Mammals and Birds
Assessment of the effects of three major regional-scale drivers of tropical defaunation, namely hunting, forest degradation and forest conversion, on measures of abundance for tropical mammal and bird species belonging to different dietary guilds and IUCN conservation status groups shows hunting has the most consistent negative impacts on abundances of carnivores, frugivores/granivores, large-bodied species, and species of high conservation importance.
Insect Declines in the Anthropocene.
  • D. Wagner
  • Environmental Science
    Annual review of entomology
  • 2019
Because the geographic extent and magnitude of insect declines are largely unknown, there is an urgent need for monitoring efforts, especially across ecological gradients, which will help to identify important causal factors in declines.
Decline of the North American avifauna
Using multiple and independent monitoring networks, population losses across much of the North American avifauna over 48 years are reported, including once-common species and from most biomes, demonstrating a continuing avifaunal crisis.
Bushmeat hunting and extinction risk to the world's mammals
An analysis showing that bushmeat hunting for mostly food and medicinal products is driving a global crisis whereby 301 terrestrial mammal species are threatened with extinction, and proposes a multi-pronged conservation strategy to help save threatened mammals from immediate extinction and avoid a collapse of food security for hundreds of millions of people.


Mammal Population Losses and the Extinction Crisis
Historic and present distributions of 173 declining mammal species from six continents are compared, finding that these species have collectively lost over 50% of their historic range area, mostly where human activities are intensive.
The effects of amphibian population declines on the structure and function of Neotropical stream ecosystems
Evidence to date suggests that amphibian declines will have large-scale and lasting ecosystem-level effects, including changes in algal composition, which will likely be greatest in neotropical highland streams.
Global Mammal Conservation: What Must We Manage?
A new global database and complementarity analysis for selecting priority areas for conservation shows that ∼11% of Earth's land surface should be managed for conservation to preserve at least 10% of terrestrial mammal geographic ranges.
The Impact of Conservation on the Status of the World’s Vertebrates
Though the threat of extinction is increasing, overall declines would have been worse in the absence of conservation, and current conservation efforts remain insufficient to offset the main drivers of biodiversity loss in these groups.
Devastating Decline of Forest Elephants in Central Africa
Analysis of the largest survey dataset ever assembled for forest elephants revealed that population size declined by ca.
Latent extinction risk and the future battlegrounds of mammal conservation.
Using large new geographic, biological, and phylogenetic databases for nearly 4,000 mammal species, the global geographic distribution of latent risk is mapped to reveal areas where the mammal fauna is still relatively unthreatened but has high inherent sensitivity to disturbance.
Commonness, population depletion and conservation biology.
Assemblage Time Series Reveal Biodiversity Change but Not Systematic Loss
This work analyzes 100 time series from biomes across Earth to ask how diversity within assemblages is changing through time and detects systematic loss of α diversity, but community composition changed systematically through time, in excess of predictions from null models.
Disease-Driven Amphibian Declines Alter Ecosystem Processes in a Tropical Stream
Predictions of biomass of grazing invertebrates, or any invertebrate functional groups, did not increase over 2 years following loss of tadpoles, indicating less biological activity in the stream sediments, and reductions in ecosystem processes linked to the amphibian decline were not compensated for by other, functionally redundant consumers.
Declines in Common, Widespread Butterflies in a Landscape under Intense Human Use
Based on their declines over the last 16 years, 2 of the 20 species reached endangered status in The Netherlands under the IUCN population-decline criterion, and 2 species met vulnerable criterion.