Deer-vehicle collision prevention techniques

@article{Mastro2008DeervehicleCP,
  title={Deer-vehicle collision prevention techniques},
  author={Lauren L. Mastro and Michael R. Conover and Shandra Nicole Frey},
  journal={Human–Wildlife Interactions},
  year={2008},
  volume={2},
  pages={15}
}
Abstract : Every year in the United States approximately 1.5 million deer–vehicle collisions (DVCs) occur resulting in >29,000 human injuries, >200 human fatalities, 1.3 million deer fatalities, and >1 billion dollars worth of property damage. Despite the magnitude of this problem, there are relatively few well-designed studies that have evaluated techniques that can be used to reduce DVCs. Techniques to reduce DVCs fall into 4 categories: reducing the number of deer ( Odocoileus spp… 
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Introduction: the scale of the problem As road infrastructures proliferate, traffic volumes and speeds rise, and ungulate densities also increase throughout Europe (Gill, 1990; Apollonio et al .,
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Collisions between large vertebrates and vehicles along roadways are an increasing concern, not only because of ecological consequences, but also because of associated economic and social costs. We
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Deer-vehicle collisions (DVCs) have a negative impact on the economy, traffic safety, and the general well-being of otherwise healthy deer. To mitigate DVCs, it is imperative to gain a better
How does variation in winter weather affect deer—vehicle collision rates?
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References

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Effectiveness of Highway Crosswalk Structures at Reducing Deer-Vehicle Collisions
TLDR
Lack of motorist response to crosswalk warning signs, the tendency for foraging deer to wander outside crosswalk boundaries, and the ineffectiveness of 1-way ROW escape gates contributed to most treatment area mortalities.
Highway mitigation fencing reduces wildlife-vehicle collisions
TLDR
It is found that WVCs were distributed nonrandomly after fencing and were associated with and close to fence ends and methods of modifying motorist behavior and fence design to decrease accident probability at fence ends are recommended.
Deer-Vehicle Collisions: Nationwide Status of State Monitoring Activities and Efforts
We distributed questionnaires to 50 state natural resource agencies in October 1992 to request estimates of deer killed annually on highways, the source of the estimates, and information about
Methods to Reduce Traffic Crashes Involving Deer: What Works and What Does Not
TLDR
The only widely accepted method with solid evidence of effectiveness is well-designed and maintained fencing, combined with underpasses or overpasses as appropriate, and herd reduction is controversial but can be effective.
Animal Vehicle Crash Mitigation Using Advanced Technology, Phase I: Review, Design and Implementation
Animal-vehicle collisions affect human safety, property and wildlife. The number of these types of collisions has increased substantially over the last decades. This report describes the results of a
PERCEPTIONS OF RISK FROM DEER-RELATED VEHICLE ACCIDENTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC PREFERENCES FOR DEER HERD SIZE
TLDR
Public awareness of DRVA's may intensify in areas where the density of deer and motorists creates a greater incidence of accidents, and associated perceptions about the threat of deer to public safety may influence public attitudes and behaviors toward deer, including public preferences regarding the size of deer populations.
Deer and Road Traffic Accidents: Options for Management
Statistics from the U.S. or from Continental Europe suggest that damage to persons and property arising from road or railway accidents involving deer amounts to a very significant annual total and is
Land-Use Pattern, Urbanization, and Deer–Vehicle Collisions in Alabama
With the rise in deer-vehicle collisions across the United States, the associated costs also have risen. Increasingly, however, researchers are learning that these collisions are not a random
Perceptions of Deer-Vehicle Collision Management by State Wildlife Agency and Department of Transportation Administrators
TLDR
Agency cultures influenced the way individual agencies responded to the problem in addition to creating different perceptions of the problem and potential solutions, and SWA and DOT administrators generally disagreed on factors that contributed to increasing DVCs and who should ultimately bear financial responsibility for DVC research and mitigation.
A LITERATURE REVIEW FOR ASSESSING THE STATUS OF CURRENT METHODS OF REDUCING DEER-VEHICLE COLLISIONS
This paper describes how many Americans are not homogenous in their feelings and attitudes regarding animals. Consideration of the various attitudes and demands of the public is necessary when
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