Deep learning in neural networks: An overview

@article{Schmidhuber2015DeepLI,
  title={Deep learning in neural networks: An overview},
  author={J{\"u}rgen Schmidhuber},
  journal={Neural networks : the official journal of the International Neural Network Society},
  year={2015},
  volume={61},
  pages={
          85-117
        }
}
In recent years, deep artificial neural networks (including recurrent ones) have won numerous contests in pattern recognition and machine learning. This historical survey compactly summarizes relevant work, much of it from the previous millennium. Shallow and Deep Learners are distinguished by the depth of their credit assignment paths, which are chains of possibly learnable, causal links between actions and effects. I review deep supervised learning (also recapitulating the history of… CONTINUE READING

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