Deep croaks and fighting assessment in toads Bufo bufo

@article{Davies1978DeepCA,
  title={Deep croaks and fighting assessment in toads Bufo bufo},
  author={Nicholas Barry Davies and T. R. Halliday},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1978},
  volume={274},
  pages={683-685}
}
ANIMALS often settle disputes by means of conventional displays. It has been suggested that this enables the contestants to assess each other's strength without resorting to a serious fight1. If this is true then we would expect natural selection to favour displays which give reliable information about fighting potential; assessment signals that are easily mimicked by weak individuals will not be evolutionary stable2,3. Often the outcome of a contest will depend simply on who is the larger, and… 
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