Deep croaks and fighting assessment in toads Bufo bufo

  title={Deep croaks and fighting assessment in toads Bufo bufo},
  author={N. Davies and T. Halliday},
ANIMALS often settle disputes by means of conventional displays. It has been suggested that this enables the contestants to assess each other's strength without resorting to a serious fight1. If this is true then we would expect natural selection to favour displays which give reliable information about fighting potential; assessment signals that are easily mimicked by weak individuals will not be evolutionary stable2,3. Often the outcome of a contest will depend simply on who is the larger, and… Expand
Male red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) assess the RHP of neighbors by watching contests
  • S. Freeman
  • Biology
  • Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
  • 2004
It is shown that neighbors are likely to intrude upon focal males that fail to attack the mount vigorously, and this result suggests that red-winged blackbirds watch contests to assess the RHP of neighbors. Expand
Display vigour and subsequent fight performance in the siamese fighting fish, betta splendens
  • C. Evans
  • Medicine, Psychology
  • Behavioural Processes
  • 1985
The display of 24 individual male Siamese fighting fish to an unresponsive stimulus conspecific was measured, and the outcome of the aggressive interaction which ensued was predicted by the gill cover erection durations obtained in the pre-fight isolate tests. Expand
Vocal signalling of male southern elephant seals is honest but imprecise
It is found that formants in the upper part of the frequency spectrum (fourth and fifth in particular) and formant dispersion convey significant information about age, size and resource holding potential at large, and, therefore, can be honest signals of a vocalizer's phenotype. Expand
Opponent assessment in lizards: examining the effect of aggressive and submissive signals
An interactive video playback study using male Jacky dragons to determine which signalling strategy was the most effective at deterring aggression and eliciting submission, revealing that their behavior during a contest is sensitive to social contingencies. Expand
Horse signals: The sounds and scents of fury
Play-back experiments show that vocalizations, such as squeals, directly provide information about status regardless of stallion familiarity, and that squeals of dominants are longer than those of subordinates and that only those of dominant have at their onset high-frequency components. Expand
Consequences of hyper-aggressiveness in Siamese fighting fish: cheaters seldom prospered
It is suggested that cheaters lost because they exhausted themselves by their hyper-aggressiveness, allowing their non-hyper-aggressive opponents to win, consistent with the Zahavi-Grafen model of how an 'honest' level of ritualized aggression can be stabilized in a population. Expand
Communication of Male Quality in Owl Hoots*
It is found that the frequency of the hoot was negatively correlated with the body weight of the vocalizer, and males with heavier apparent weight tended to give hoots with a lower plateau in response to playbacks simulating heavier intruders. Expand
Communication By Agonistic Displays
1. Great skuas Stercorarius skua use a range of displays in agonistic interactions in the club areas of their breeding colonies. We examine whether these displays allow reliable prediction of theExpand
Display rate and opponent assessment in the Jacky dragon (Amphibolurus muricatus): An experimental analysis
Summary Honest signals allow animals to assess an opponent without the injury risk of e ghting. Playback experiments have shown that call rate is an important parameter in the acoustic signals ofExpand
Competitive mate searching in male common toads, Bufo bufo
The reproductive behaviour of a population of individually marked toads Bufo bufo was studied at a pond where males outnumbered females by between four and five to one and larger males enjoyed greater reproductive success. Expand


Optimal mate selection in the toad Bufo bufo
It is reported here that, in the wild, toads (Bufo bufo) do not pair up at random, that this comes about through male–male competition probably influenced by the behaviour of the female and that mating involves a compromise between different male and female optima. Expand
Effects of Temperature, Body Size, and Hybridization on Mating Calls of Toads, Bufo a. americanus and Bufo woodhousii fowleri
The mating calls of Bufo a. americanus and B. woodhousii fowleri studied in northern New Jersey and on Long Island, New York, consist of trains of pulses uttered at a rate of from 18 to 59 pulses/secExpand
On the Occurrence and Significance of Motivation-Structural Rules in Some Bird and Mammal Sounds
It is proposed that many sounds in species' repertoires are evolved from motivation-structural rules derived from selection pressures favoring the use of communication instead of, or in conjunction with, fighting to attain resources. Expand
Assessment strategy and the evolution of fighting behaviour.
  • G. Parker
  • Economics, Medicine
  • Journal of theoretical biology
  • 1974
Predictions compatible with the observations are given, indicating that RHP loss alone can be adequate to explain withdrawal: escalation behaviour. Expand
Morphological and Mating Call Comparisons in the Bufo valliceps Complex
Bufo canaliferus and B. coccifer bear neither a close resemblance to each other nor to the other five species, and appear to belong to different species groups than that to which B. valliceps belongs. Expand
Isolating Mechanisms and Interspecies Interactions in Anuran Amphibians
  • W. F. Blair
  • Medicine, Biology
  • The Quarterly Review of Biology
  • 1964
Examination of various allopatric and sympatric species pairs in the anurans indicates that, as known at present, there is no predictable sequence in which the various kinds of isolating mechanisms evolve, however, sympatrics species always differ in mating call, and some allop atric populations have been shown to differ enough for the females to discriminate between the calls of their own and foreign males. Expand
The logic of asymmetric contests
Abstract A theoretical analysis is made of the evolution of behavioural strategies in contest situations. It is assumed that behaviour will evolve so as to maximize individual fitness. If so, aExpand
Mechanics of sound production in toads of the genus Bufo: passive elements.
  • W. F. Martin
  • Biology, Medicine
  • The Journal of experimental zoology
  • 1971
The vibration mechanics of the vocal tracts of over 40 species of toads were studied, using an apparatus to artificially activate the larynges of freshly killed animals to confirm the results obtained by artificial activation. Expand
The Logic of Animal Conflict
Conflicts between animals of the same species usually are of “limited war” type, not causing serious injury. This is often explained as due to group or species selection for behaviour benefiting theExpand
Muscular control of the vocal tract during release signaling in the toad Bufo valliceps
The release vibration and release call of Bufo valliceps have been studied by electromyography of the muscles involved, coupled with pressure and sound recording. The sequences are powered byExpand