Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE), Far Detector Technical Design Report, Volume II: DUNE Physics

  title={Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE), Far Detector Technical Design Report, Volume II: DUNE Physics},
  author={Babak Abi and R. Acciarri and Mario A. Acero and George Adamov and David L. Adams and Marco Adinolfi and Z. Ahmad and J. Ahmed and Tyler Alion and S. A. Monsalve and C. Alt and J. R. Anderson and Costas Andreopoulos and M. P. Andrews and F. Andrianala and S. Andringa and A. M. Ankowski and J. Anthony and M. G. Antonova and Stefan Antusch and A. Aranda Fernandez and Akitaka Ariga and Lukas On Arnold and Manuel A. Arroyave and Jonathan Asaadi and Adam Aurisano and V. Aushev and Dario Autiero and Farrukh Azfar and Henning Olling Back and J. J. Back and C. Backhouse and Paolo Baesso and L. Bagby and R. Bajou and Supraja Balasubramanian and Pierre Baldi and Bindu Anubha Bambah and Fernando Bar{\~a}o and Gabriela Barenboim and Gary John Barker and Wayne A. Barkhouse and Chris P. Barnes and Giles David Barr and J. Barranco Monarca and Nuno Barros and Joshua Barrow and Amit Bashyal and V. Basque and F. Bay and J. L. Bazo Alba and John F. Beacom and E. Bechetoille and Biswaranjan Behera and Leo Bellantoni and Giorgio Bellettini and Vincenzo Bellini and Olga Beltramello and Daniel Belver and N. Benekos and F. Bento Neves and Joshua Berger and Sophie Berkman and Paolo Bernardini and Roman Berner and H. G. Berns and Sergio Bertolucci and M. Betancourt and Yashwanth Bezawada and Mrinmoy Bhattacharjee and B. Bhuyan and Simone Biagi and Jianming Bian and Matteo Biassoni and Kurt Biery and Burak Bilki and Mary Bishai and Alexander Bitadze and A. Blake and Beatriz B. Siffert and F. d. M. Blaszczyk and Gerald Charles Blazey and Edward Blucher and J. G. Boissevain and Sara Bolognesi and T. Bolton and Maurizio Bonesini and Mathieu Bongrand and F. Bonini and Alexander Booth and Christopher Neal Booth and Stefania Bordoni and A. Borkum and T. Boschi and Nilay Bostan and Petr Bouř and S. B. Boyd and D K Boyden and Juraj Bracinik and Davide Braga and D. Brailsford and Andrew Brandt and John W. Bremer and Christopher Brew and Eldwan Brianne and Stephen J. Brice and Claudia Brizzolari and Carl Bromberg and Gustaaf Brooijmans and James John Brooke and Alan D. Bross and G. Brunetti and Norman Buchanan and H. S. Budd and Davide Caiulo and Paolo Calafiura and Jordan Calcutt and M. Calin and Steven Calvez and E. Calvo and Leslie Camilleri and Alessio Caminata and Mario Campanelli and David Caratelli and Gabriella Carini and Bruno Carlus and Paolo Carniti and Ivan Caro Terrazas and Hector Carranza and Andr'es Castillo and Cesar Castromonte and C. Cattadori and F. Cavalier and F. Cavanna and Sandro Centro and Giuseppe Benedetto Cerati and Alberto Cervelli and A. Cervera Villanueva and M. Chalifour and C. Chang and E. Chardonnet and Arka Chatterjee and Subhasis Chattopadhyay and Jorge Chaves and H. Chen and M. C. Chen and Y. Chen and Daniel Cherdack and C. Y. Chi and Sam Childress and Ana Chiriacescu and K. Cho and Sandhya Choubey and Anne Christensen and D. Christian and Georgios Christodoulou and Eric Church and P. E. L. Clarke and Thomas E. Coan and Alfredo G. Cocco and Jo{\~a}o A. B. Coelho and Erin Conley and Janet M. Conrad and M. R. Convery and Lauren Anita Corwin and P. H. Cotte and L. Cremaldi and Linda Cremonesi and J. I. Crespo-Anad{\'o}n and E. Cristaldo and R. Cross and C. Cuesta and Y. Cui and David Cussans and M. M. Dabrowski and H{\'e}lio da Motta and L. Da Silva Peres and Q. David and Gavin S. Davies and Stefano Davini and John W. Dawson and Kaushik De and Rog{\'e}rio M. de Almeida and Paul Debbins and Ida de Bonis and M. P. Decowski and Andr'e de Gouvea and P. C. de Holanda and I. L. de Icaza Astiz and Alexander Deisting and Paul de Jong and Alain Delbart and D Delepine and Manuel Alejandro Segura Delgado and Andrea Dell'Acqua and P. De Lurgio and J. de Mello Neto and David Demuth and Steve Dennis and Chris Densham and Grzegorz W. Deptuch and A. De Roeck and Valentina De Romeri and Jordy de Vries and Ranjan Dharmapalan and F. Diaz and J. S. D{\'i}az and Sergio Di Domizio and Letizia Di Giulio and P. F. Ding and Lea Di Noto and Carla Distefano and Richard Diurba and Milind Diwan and Z. Djurcic and Neha Dokania and M. J. Dolinski and Laura Domin{\'e} and David Douglas and Francois Drielsma and D. Duchesneau and Kirsty Duffy and P. Dunne and T. Durkin and Hongyue Duyang and Oleg V. Dvornikov and Daniel A. Dwyer and Alexander Dyshkant and Michael Eads and Daniel Edmunds and Jonathan Eisch and S. Emery and Antonio Ereditato and Carlos Ourivio Escobar and Lorena Escudero Sanchez and J. J. Evans and E. Ewart and A. C. Ezeribe and K. Fahey and Abraham D. Falcone and Christian Farnese and Yasaman Farzan and Juli{\'a}n F{\'e}lix and Enrique Fernandez-Martinez and Pablo Fern{\'a}ndez Men{\'e}ndez and Federico Ferraro and L. Fields and A. Filkins and Frank Filthaut and R. S. Fitzpatrick and Will Flanagan and B. T. Fleming and Robert M. Flight and Jessica Fowler and Walter Fox and Jiř{\'i} Franc and Kurt Francis and D. Franco and John Christian Freeman and Julian Freestone and Jack Fried and Alexander Friedland and Stuart Fuess and I. Furic and A. P. Furmanski and A. M. Gago and H. R. Gallagher and A. Gallego-Ros and Niccol{\`o} Gallice and Vyacheslav Galymov and Enrico Gamberini and Trevor Gamble and Raj Gandhi and Reddy Pratap Gandrajula and S. Q. Gao and Diego Garcia-Gamez and M{\'o}nica Garc{\'i}a-Peris and Steven Gardiner and D. Gastler and G. Ge and B. Passarelli Gelli and Adamo Gendotti and S. Gent and Z. Ghorbani-Moghaddam and D. Gibin and In{\'e}s Gil-Botella and Claude Girerd and Anjan Kumar Giri and D. Gnani and Olga Gogota and Michael S. Gold and Sowjanya Gollapinni and Keith Gollwitzer and Ricardo Avelino Gomes and L. V. Gomez Bermeo and Luz Stella Gomez Fajardo and Francesco Gonnella and Juan A. Gonzalez-Cuevas and Maury Charles Goodman and O. Goodwin and Srubabati Goswami and Claudio Gotti and Evgueni Goudzovski and Carl R. Grace and M. T. Graham and E. Gramellini and Rik Gran and Everardo Granados and A. L. Grant and C. Grant and Diego R. Gratieri and P. Green and Steven Green and L. Greenler and M. Greenwood and Joe Greer and W. C. Griffith and Manfred Groh and James J. Grudzinski and Katarzyna Grzelak and W. Q. Gu and Victor Guarino and Roxanne Guenette and Alberto Guglielmi and Bin Guo and Kiran Guthikonda and Rafael M. Guti{\'e}rrez and P. Guzowski and Marcelo M. Guzzo and S. Gwon and Alec Habig and Ariana Hackenburg and Haleh Khani Hadavand and R. Haenni and A. A. Hahn and Jennifer Haigh and James Haiston and Thomas Hamernik and Pip Hamilton and J. Han and Kristian Harder and D. A. Harris and Jeff Hartnell and Takehisa Hasegawa and Robert Hatcher and E. S. Hazen and Anne Heavey and K M Heeger and Karol Hennessy and Sarah Henry and M. A. Hernandez Morquecho and Ken Herner and Lars Hertel and A. S. Hesam and Jeremy Hewes and Aaron Higuera and T. S. Hill and Stephen Hillier and Alexander Himmel and James R. Hoff and Christian Hohl and A. Holin and Eric W. Hoppe and G. Horton-Smith and Matheus Hostert and Adrien Hourlier and B. Howard and Ryan Howell and J. Huang and Justin Hugon and Gregory M. Iles and Ana-Maria Iliescu and Robert Illingworth and Ara N. Ioannisian and Ran Itay and Alexander Izmaylov and Eric B. James and B. Jargowsky and Filip Jedin{\'y} and C{\'e}sar Jes{\'u}s-Valls and X Ji and L X Jiang and S. Jim'enez and Alexandru Jipa and Aniket Joglekar and C. A. Johnson and R. A. Johnson and B. J. P. Jones and S.B. Jones and Chang Kee Jung and T. R. Junk and Yeon-jae Jwa and M. Kabirnezhad and Asher Kaboth and I. Kadenko and F. Kamiya and Georgia Karagiorgi and Armin Karcher and M. Karolak and Yannis Karyotakis and Shinya Kasai and Siva Prasad Kasetti and L. Kashur and N. Kazaryan and Edward Kearns and Paula Keener and Kevin J. Kelly and Ernesto Kemp and Wesley Ketchum and Steven Kettell and Marat Khabibullin and Alexey N. Khotjantsev and Arsen Khvedelidze and D. H. Kim and Bruce James King and Brian Kirby and M. Kirby and J. R. Klein and K. Koehler and Lisa Koerner and Saul A. Kohn and Patrick P. Koller and Michael Kordosky and T. Z. Kosc and Umut Kose and V. Alan Kosteleck{\'y} and K. Kothekar and Frank Krennrich and Igor Kreslo and Y. Kudenko and V. A. Kudryavtsev and Sergey A. Kulagin and J. Kumar and R. Kumar and Chatura Kuruppu and Vlastimil Kus and Thomas Kutter and Andrew Lambert and Kenneth Lande and C E Lane and Karol Lang and T J Langford and P Lasorak and David Last and Chiara Filomena Lastoria and A. Laundrie and A. Lawrence and Ionel Lazanu and R. LaZur and Trung Le and John G. Learned and Patrice Lebrun and Giovanna Lehmann Miotto and Ralf Lehnert and M. Leigui de Oliveira and Matthias Leitner and Michael Leyton and L. Li and S. W. Li and S. W. Li and T. Li and Y. Li and H. Y. Liao and C. S. Lin and S. K. Lin and Adam Robert Andover Lister and Bryce R. Littlejohn and J. C. Liu and S. Lockwitz and T. J. Loew and Milos Lokajicek and I. Lomidze and Kenneth Long and Kai Loo and David Lorca and Thomas Lord and J. M. LoSecco and William Louis and K. B. Luk and X. Luo and Nicolas Lurkin and Thorsten Lux and Vitor Prestes Luzio and Donna M. MacFarland and A. A. Machado and Pedro A. N. Machado and C. T. Macias and J. R. Macier and A. Maddalena and Peter Madigan and Steve Magill and K. Mahn and Am{\'e}lia Maio and James Maloney and Gianni Mandrioli and Jos{\'e} Maneira and Laura Manenti and Steven L. Manly and Alexander Mann and Konstantinos Manolopoulos and M. Manrique Plata and Alberto Marchionni and William Joseph Marciano and Danny Marfatia and Carlo Mariani and J. Maricic and F. Marinho and Alysia Marino and Marvin L. Marshak and Chris Marshall and J. S. Marshall and Jacques Marteau and Justo Mart{\'i}n-Albo and N. Lorenzo Martinez and D. A. Martinez Caicedo and S. Martynenko and K. O. Mason and A. Mastbaum and Mehedi Masud and S. Matsuno and J. A. J. Matthews and Christopher Michael Mauger and Nicoletta Mauri and K. Mavrokoridis and R. Mazza and A. Mazzacane and Eddy Mazzucato and Elaine McCluskey and N. McConkey and K. S. McFarland and C. Mcgrew and A. McNab and A. V. Mefodiev and Poonam Mehta and P. Melas and M. Mellinato and Olga Mena and Stephen B Menary and L. Mendes Santos and Hector Mendez and Alessandro Menegolli and Guang Meng and M. D. Messier and William J. Metcalf and Matthew Mewes and H. Meyer and Ting Miao and G. Michna and T. Miedema and Jost Migenda and Radovan Milincic and Warner A. Miller and J. Mills and C. Milne and O. V. Mineev and O. G. Miranda and Sandeep Miryala and Chandra S. Mishra and S. R. Mishra and Aaron Mislivec and Dimitar Mladenov and Irina Mocioiu and K. Moffat and N. Moggi and Rukmani Mohanta and Tanaz Angelina Mohayai and N. Mokhov and J. Molina and L. Molina Bueno and Alessandro Montanari and Claudio Montanari and Davide Montanari and Luis Manuel Monta{\~n}o Z{\'e}tina and Jarrett Moon and Michael Mooney and A. F. Moor and D. Moreno and Ben Morgan and Christopher L. Morris and C J Mossey and Erdem Motuk and C. A. Moura and Joel Mousseau and Wei Mu and Leon Mualem and James Mueller and Mathew Muether and Stuart Lee Mufson and Franz Muheim and A. M. Muir and Michael Mulhearn and H. Muramatsu and Sebastien Murphy and James A. Musser and J. Nachtman and Srishti Nagu and Marine Nalbandyan and Rajalakshmi Nandakumar and Donna Lynne Naples and S. Narita and Diana Navas-Nicol{\'a}s and N. Nayak and M. Nebot-Guinot and Lina Necib and Kenta Negishi and Jenny Nelson and J. Nesbit and Marzio Nessi and Dave M. Newbold and Mitchel Newcomer and D. Newhart and Robert C. Nichol and E. Niner and K. Nishimura and Andrew Norman and Richard Northrop and Pau Novella and Jaroslaw A. Nowak and M. B. Oberling and A. Olivares Del Campo and A. Olivier and Yasar Onel and Y. Onishchuk and Jordan Ott and Luca Pagani and Sandip Pakvasa and Ornella Palamara and Sandro Palestini and Jonathan Paley and Marco B. Pallavicini and Carmen Palomares and Emilija Pantic and Vittorio Paolone and V. Papadimitriou and Riccardo Papaleo and Antonios Papanestis and Sudarshan Paramesvaran and Stephen J. Parke and Zohreh Parsa and Mihaela Parvu and Silvia Pascoli and Laura Pasqualini and Jaroslaw Pasternak and Joleen Pater and Cheryl E. Patrick and Laura Patrizii and Ryan Benton Patterson and Simon J. Patton and Th. Patzak and Ajib Paudel and B. Paulos and Laura Paulucci and Žarko Pavlovi{\'c} and G. Pawloski and D. J. Payne and Viktor Pě{\vc} and Simon J. M. Peeters and Yves P{\'e}nichot and E. Pennacchio and A. Penzo and O. L. G. Peres and J. O. Perry and Daniel Pershey and Gianluigi Pessina and Gianluca Petrillo and Catia Petta and Roberto Petti and Francesco Piastra and Luke Pickering and Francesco Pietropaolo and J. Pillow and Robert K. Plunkett and Ron Poling and Xavier Pons and Navaneeth Poonthottathil and S Pordes and Maxim Potekhin and Renato Potenza and B. V.K.S. Potukuchi and J{\"u}rgen Pozimski and Michele Pozzato and Suprabh Prakash and T. Prakash and S. Prince and Denis Pugn{\`e}re and Kai Qi and Xin Qian and J L Raaf and Roland Raboanary and Veljko Radeka and Jonas Rademacker and Balint Radics and A. Rafique and E. Raguzin and M. Rai and M. Rajaoalisoa and Igor L. Rakhno and Hery Tiana Rakotondramanana and Laza Rakotondravohitra and Yorck Ramachers and Regina Abby Rameika and M. A. Ramirez Delgado and Bryan Ramson and Andrea Rappoldi and Gianluca L. Raselli and Peter Ratoff and Sylvain Ravat and H. Razafinime and J.-S. R{\'e}al and Brian J. Rebel and David Redondo and M. Reggiani-Guzzo and Tyler J. Rehak and Juergen Reichenbacher and Sarah Diane Reitzner and Andrew Renshaw and Sergio Rescia and Filippo Resnati and Alex Reynolds and Giorgio Riccobene and L. C. J. Rice and Keith Rielage and Y. Rigaut and D. Rivera and Leon S. Rochester and M. Roda and Philip Rodrigues and M. J. Rodriguez Alonso and J. Rodriguez Rondon and Alison Roeth and H. E. Rogers and Salvador Rosauro-Alcaraz and Massimo Rossella and Jogesh Rout and S. N. Roy and Andr'e Rubbia and Carlo Rubbia and B. Russell and John J. Russell and D. Ruterbories and Ruben Saakyan and S. Sacerdoti and Twymun Safford and Narendra Sahu and Paola Sala and Nicholas P. Samios and Mar{\'i}a Cristina S{\'a}nchez and David A. Sanders and D. P. C. Sankey and S. Santana and M. Santos-Maldonado and Niki Saoulidou and Piera Sapienza and C. Sarasty and Ina Sar{\vc}evi{\'c} and Graham Savage and Vladimir Savinov and Alberto Scaramelli and Andrew Scarff and A. P. Baeta Scarpelli and T. Schaffer and H. Schellman and Philip Schlabach and D. W. Schmitz and Kate Scholberg and Anne Schukraft and Ettore Segreto and Jonathon Sensenig and Ihn Sik Seong and Anthony Sergi and Franco Sergiampietri and D. Sgalaberna and Michael Herman Shaevitz and Sheeba Shafaq and Michael Shamma and Hari Ram Sharma and R. Sharma and Theresa Shaw and Claire Shepherd-Themistocleous and S. S. Shin and Dean D Shooltz and Robert Shrock and Laurent Simard and N. Simos and James Sinclair and G. V. Sinev and J. B. Singh and Roland Sipos and F. W. Sippach and G. Sirri and A. Sitraka and Kim Siyeon and D. Smargianaki and A. Smith and E. Smith and P. Smith and Jan Smol{\'i}k and Michael Burghard Smy and Pavel Snopok and M. Soares Nunes and Henry W. Sobel and M. Soderberg and Carlos Javier Solano Salinas and Stefan Soldner-Rembold and Nickolas Solomey and V. N. Solovov and Walter Sondheim and Marc Sorel and J. Soto-Oton and Alexandre Sousa and Karel Soustruznik and F. Spagliardi and Maura Spanu and Joshua Spitz and N. J. C. Spooner and K. Spurgeon and Richard Staley and M. Stancari and L. Stanco and Herbert M. Steiner and James Stewart and B. Stillwell and J. Stock and Francesca Stocker and T. Stokes and Matthew Strait and Thomas Strauss and Sergei I. Striganov and Ahn Stuart and D. Summers and Antonio Surdo and Vasja Susi{\vc} and Louise Suter and Concetta Sutera and Robert C. Svoboda and Barbara Szczerbinska and Andrzej M. Szelc and Richard L. Talaga and H. A. Tanaka and B. Tapia Oregui and Alexander D. Tapper and S. Tariq and E. Tatar and R. Tayloe and Abraham Teklu and M. Tenti and Kazuhiro Terao and Christoph A. Ternes and Francesco Terranova and Gemma Testera and A. Thea and J. L. Thompson and Craig E. Thorn and Steven Timm and Alessandra Tonazzo and M. Torti and M. T{\'o}rtola and Francesco Tortorici and D. Totani and M. Toups and C. Touramanis and Jason Trevor and W. H. Trzaska and Y. T. Tsai and Z. Tsamalaidze and Ka Vang Tsang and N. Tsverava and S. Tufanli and Craig E. Tull and E. Tyley and Martin Tzanov and Melissa Uchida and Jon Urheim and Tracy Usher and Mark Robert Vagins and P. Vahle and G. A. Valdiviesso and E. Valencia and Z. Vallari and Jos{\'e} W. F. Valle and Sofia Vallecorsa and Richard Van Berg and Richard Van de Water and David V. Forero and Filippo Varanini and D. Vargas and G. S. Varner and Justin A. Vasel and G. Vasseur and Kamran Salehi Vaziri and Sandro Ventura and Alejandro Verdugo and Stefano Vergani and Milo Vermeulen and Marco Verzocchi and H. Vieira de Souza and Chiara Vignoli and Cristovao Vilela and Brett Viren and T. Vrba and Tomasz Wachala and Abigail Victoria Waldron and Michael Wallbank and H. G. Wang and J. Wang and Y. Wang and Karl Warburton and David S. Warner and M. Wascko and David D. Waters and A. W. Watson and P B Weatherly and Andreas Weber and M. S. Weber and H Wei and A. Weinstein and Daniel Wenman and Matthew J. Wetstein and M. R. While and Andrew White and L. Whitehead and Denver Whittington and Michael J. Wilking and Callum Wilkinson and Zachary Douglas Williams and Fergus Wilson and R. J. Wilson and Jeremy Wolcott and Taritree Wongjirad and Kevin Wood and L. Wood and E. Worcester and M. Worcester and C. Wret and W. Wu and Y. Xiao and G. Yang and T. Yang and N. Yershov and Katsuya Yonehara and T. de Young and B. Yu and J. Yu and Jaroslav Z{\'a}le{\vs}{\'a}k and Laura Zambelli and Bruno Zamorano and Andrea Zani and L. Zazueta and G. Zeller and J. Zennamo and K. Zeug and C Zhang and M. G. Zhao and E. Zhivun and G. Y. Zhu and Eric D. Zimmerman and Marco Zito and S. Zucchelli and J. Zuklin and Vishnu V. Zutshi and Robert Zwaska},
  journal={arXiv: High Energy Physics - Experiment},
The preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early universe, the dynamics of the supernovae that produced the heavy elements necessary for life, and whether protons eventually decay -- these mysteries at the forefront of particle physics and astrophysics are key to understanding the early evolution of our universe, its current state, and its eventual fate. DUNE is an international world-class experiment dedicated to addressing these questions as it searches for leptonic charge-parity… 

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