Inflammatory protein response in CDKL5-Rett syndrome: evidence of a subclinical smouldering inflammation
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease that has been linked to increased cardiovascular risk. The glycoprotein clusterin (apolipoprotein J) is a component of high-density lipoproteins and has a protective role in atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the plasma levels of clusterin and the proinflammatory cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in patients with severe psoriasis, comparing groups of patients with different risks of cardiovascular disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS Twenty-one patients with severe psoriasis (psoriasis area severity index and body surface area>10) and 11 healthy controls with no dermatologic disease were studied. Cardiovascular risk factors were assessed according to the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III criteria. Subclinical carotid atheromatosis was assessed by Doppler ultrasonography of the carotid arteries. Plasma clusterin and MIF levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS ATP-III criteria for metabolic syndrome were met by 47% of the patients, and 33% had carotid atheromatous plaque. Mean (SD) clusterin plasma levels were significantly lower in patients with psoriasis compared with controls (81.39 [27.30] μg/mL for the 21 patients vs 117 [21.6] μg/mL for the 11 controls; P=.0017). MIF plasma levels (ng/ml) were significantly higher in patients with atheromatous plaque compared with controls (53.22 [29.02] for the 6 patients with plaque vs 34.21 [9.65] for the 11 controls; P=.0394). CONCLUSIONS The decreased plasma levels of clusterin in psoriatic patients suggested an association with the disease and might be an indicator of systemic inflammatory activity. Increased levels of MIF appear to be associated with cardiovascular risk factors and carotid atheromatous plaque.