Declines in insectivorous birds are associated with high neonicotinoid concentrations

@article{Hallmann2014DeclinesII,
  title={Declines in insectivorous birds are associated with high neonicotinoid concentrations},
  author={Caspar A. Hallmann and Ruud P. B. Foppen and Chris van Turnhout and Hans Kroon and Eelke Jongejans},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2014},
  volume={511},
  pages={341-343}
}
Recent studies have shown that neonicotinoid insecticides have adverse effects on non-target invertebrate species. [...] Key Result Here we show that, in the Netherlands, local population trends were significantly more negative in areas with higher surface-water concentrations of imidacloprid. At imidacloprid concentrations of more than 20 nanograms per litre, bird populations tended to decline by 3.5 per cent on average annually.Expand
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