Deciding Advantageously Before Knowing the Advantageous Strategy

@article{Bechara1997DecidingAB,
  title={Deciding Advantageously Before Knowing the Advantageous Strategy},
  author={Antoine Bechara and Hanna Damasio and Daniel Tranel and Antonio R. Damasio},
  journal={Science},
  year={1997},
  volume={275},
  pages={1293 - 1295}
}
Deciding advantageously in a complex situation is thought to require overt reasoning on declarative knowledge, namely, on facts pertaining to premises, options for action, and outcomes of actions that embody the pertinent previous experience. An alternative possibility was investigated: that overt reasoning is preceded by a nonconscious biasing step that uses neural systems other than those that support declarative knowledge. Normal participants and patients with prefrontal damage and decision… 
The Role of Risk Aversion in Non-Conscious Decision Making
TLDR
An improved variant of the Iowa Gambling Task is devised in which the deck-payoff contingency switches after subjects repeatedly choose from a good deck, offering the statistical power of repeated within-subject measures based on learning the reward contingencies associated with each deck.
Anticipation of cognitive demand during decision-making
TLDR
It is argued, based on convergent evidence, that such anticipation may not only trigger preparation; it may also play a direct role in effort-based decision-making.
The role of strategies in deciding advantageously in ambiguous and risky situations
TLDR
Results indicate that deciding advantageously in a decision-making task with explicit and stable rules is linked to applying calculative strategies, and support the view that calculative processes and strategies may improve decision- making under explicit risk conditions.
Emotional Awareness and Psychophysiological Markers of Performance on the Iowa Gambling Task
 Proposes that in complex decision-making situations that entail reward, punishment, and uncertainty, physiological emotional processes act as biasing markers that influence decisions to an
Lateral prefrontal cortex contributes to maladaptive decisions
TLDR
A causal role of the LPFC in implementing suboptimal decision strategy guided by false world models is revealed, especially when such strategy requires great resources for cognitive control.
A reexamination of the evidence for the somatic marker hypothesis: what participants really know in the Iowa gambling task.
TLDR
It is shown that participants have much more knowledge about the game than previously thought, and that when they behave advantageously, their verbal reports nearly always reveal evidence of quantitativeknowledge about the outcomes of the decks that would be sufficient to guide such advantageous behavior.
Neural Correlates of Successful and Unsuccessful Strategical Mechanisms Involved in Uncertain Decision-Making
TLDR
The results suggest that undecided subjects are hyposensitive to the valence of the cards during gambling, which affects the feedback processing.
Insula and Striatum Mediate the Default Bias
TLDR
A novel gambling task in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that participants were more likely to choose the default card and felt enhanced emotional responses to outcomes after making the decision to switch, highlighting aversive processes in the insula as underlying the default bias.
Factors affecting learning and decision-making in the Iowa Gambling Task
Damasio's somatic marker hypothesis (SMH; Damasio, 1994, 1996) integrates emotion with rational decision-making using evidence drawn from neurology, neuroscience and performance on a now widely cited
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 18 REFERENCES
Failure to respond autonomically to anticipated future outcomes following damage to prefrontal cortex.
TLDR
A physiological correlate for the defect of prefrontal damage is identified and its possible significance is discussed, compatible with the idea that these patients fail to activate biasing signals that would serve as value markers in the distinction between choices with good or bad future outcomes.
Descartes' error: emotion, reason, and the human brain. avon books
Descartes' Error offers the scientific basis for ending the division between mind and body. Antonio Damasio contends that rational decisions are not the product of logic alone - they require the
On the basis of a series of related studies
  • Soc. Neurosci. Abstr
  • 1996
Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain (Grosset/Putnam
  • New York,
  • 1994
Geophys. J. Int
  • Geophys. J. Int
  • 1993
J. Geophys. Res
  • J. Geophys. Res
  • 1994
J. Geophys. Res
  • J. Geophys. Res
  • 1973
J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res
  • J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res
  • 1980
Los Alamos Lab
  • Los Alamos Lab
  • 1988
...
...