CD147 is a widely expressed plasma membrane protein that has been implicated in a variety of physiological and pathological activities. It is best known for its ability to function as extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (hence the other name for this protein, EMMPRIN), but has also been shown to regulate lymphocyte responsiveness, monocarboxylate transporter expression and spermatogenesis. These functions reflect multiple interacting partners of CD147. Recently, interaction of CD147 with proteins of the cyclophilin family has been demonstrated and activity of CD147 as a signalling receptor to extracellular cyclophilins A and B has been shown. Given that extracellular cyclophilins are potent chemotactic agents for various immune cells, further studies of the role of cyclophilin-CD147 interaction in inflammation followed. They demonstrated that agents targeting CD147 or cyclophilin had a significant anti-inflammatory effect in animal models of acute or chronic lung diseases and rheumatoid arthritis. Here, we review the current knowledge about interactions between CD147 and cyclophilins.