Dead reckoning (path integration) requires the hippocampal formation: evidence from spontaneous exploration and spatial learning tasks in light (allothetic) and dark (idiothetic) tests

  title={Dead reckoning (path integration) requires the hippocampal formation: evidence from spontaneous exploration and spatial learning tasks in light (allothetic) and dark (idiothetic) tests},
  author={Ian Q. Whishaw and Dustin J. Hines and Douglas G Wallace},
  journal={Behavioural Brain Research},

Fractionating dead reckoning: role of the compass, odometer, logbook, and home base establishment in spatial orientation

This review examines the extent that kinematic analysis of naturally occurring behavior has provided insight into processes that mediate dead-reckoning-based navigation and supports a role for separate systems in processing self-movement cues that converge on the hippocampus.

NMDA lesions of Ammon's horn and the dentate gyrus disrupt the direct and temporally paced homing displayed by rats exploring a novel environment: evidence for a role of the hippocampus in dead reckoning

Temporal, topographical and kinematic reconstructions of homing behaviour indicated that control rats, but not hippocampal rats, made direct high velocity return trips to the home base in both the light and the dark, suggesting the movements were preplanned.

Assessing spatial learning and memory in rodents.

Several allocentric assessment methods for rodents are reviewed and compared with the Morris water maze and it is concluded that, on balance, the MWM has more advantages than disadvantages and compares favorably with other allocentric navigation tasks.

The medial frontal cortex contributes to but does not organize rat exploratory behavior

Vestibular Information Is Required for Dead Reckoning in the Rat

This is the first unambiguous demonstration that vestibular information is used in dead reckoning and also contributes to piloting.

Processing idiothetic cues to remember visited locations: Hippocampal and vestibular contributions to radial‐arm maze performance

Control rats, but not hippocampal lesioned rats, can form spatial memories by processing idiothetic inputs, and cues generated during locomotion play an important role in hippocampal‐dependent spatial memory.

Using idiothetic cues to swim a path with a fixed trajectory and distance: necessary involvement of the hippocampus, but not the retrosplenial cortex.

The spatial effects of hippocampal damage extend beyond allocentric tasks to include aspects of idiothetic guidance and the ability to locate a platform placed in the center of the pool.

Acetylcholine Contributes to the Integration of Self-Movement Cues in Head Direction Cells

It is suggested that acetylcholine contributes to path integration, in part, by facilitating the use of idiothetic cues to maintain a consistent representation of directional heading in visual environments.



Path Integration Absent in Scent-Tracking Fimbria–Fornix Rats: Evidence for Hippocampal Involvement in “Sense of Direction” and “Sense of Distance” Using Self-Movement Cues

The results support the hypothesis that the hippocampal formation is necessary for navigation requiring the integration of idiothetic cues.

Rats with Fimbria–Fornix Lesions Are Impaired in Path Integration: A Role for the Hippocampus in “Sense of Direction”

Results are consistent with the hypothesis that rats can use dead-reckoning to solve spatial problems, and this ability depends on the integrity of the hippocampal formation.

Calibrating space: Exploration is important for allothetic and idiothetic navigation

Comparing the contribution of exploration in these navigation strategies by comparing its contribution to the solution of both allothetic and idiothetic navigation problems suggests that both navigation strategies require a calibrated representation of the environment.

Place Learning in Hippocampal Rats and the Path Integration Hypothesis

  • I. Whishaw
  • Biology, Psychology
    Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews
  • 1998

Deficits in allothetic and idiothetic spatial behavior in rats with posterior cingulate cortex lesions

Hippocampectomized rats are impaired in homing by path integration

The finding that hippocampal rats are impaired under conditions requiring the use of self‐movement cues suggests that the hippocampus plays an essential role in path integration.

Rats with hippocampal lesions learn about allocentric place cues in a non-navigational task.

It is confirmed that Allo cues helped HPC rats as much as SH, in the absence of Ego cues, and that Rats with HPC lesions can learn about allocentric place cues when navigation and idiothetic cue control are not required.

Binding of hippocampal CA1 neural activity to multiple reference frames in a landmark-based navigation task

The results suggest that in this task a subpopulation of hippocampal cells encodes location in the fixed spatial frame, whereas other subpopulations encode location with respect to different reference frames associated with the task-relevant, mobile objects.

Homing with locale, taxon, and dead reckoning strategies by foraging rats: sensory hierarchy in spatial navigation

Influences of vestibular and visual motion information on the spatial firing patterns of hippocampal place cells

Hippocampal place cells show location-specific firing as animals locomote in an environment that is influenced by movement-related information, since this is the only available, ongoing indicator of current location when external orienting cues are not present.