Data and phenomena

@article{Woodward2004DataAP,
  title={Data and phenomena},
  author={Jim Woodward},
  journal={Synthese},
  year={2004},
  volume={79},
  pages={393-472}
}
My aim in this paper is to draw attention to a distinction and to a related set of procedures which are important to understanding science but which, until very recently, have been neglected or misdescribed by philosophers of science. The distinction in question is the distinction between data and phenomena and the procedures have to do with inferring claims about phenomena from claims about data. I shall begin with a general characterization of what I mean by data and phenomena. I shall then… 

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