Conjoined twinning & biological individuation
- PhilosophyPhilosophical Studies
In dicephalus conjoined twinning, it appears that two heads share a body; in cephalopagus, it appears that two bodies share a head. How many human animals are present in these cases? One answer is…
A part‐dependent account of biological individuality: why holobionts are individuals and ecosystems simultaneously
- MedicineBiological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
This account shows that contemporary disagreements about the individuality of the holobiont derive from an incorrect understanding of the ontology of biological individuality, and shows that collaboration between philosophers and biologists can be very fruitful in attempts to solve some contemporary biological debates.
How to count biological minds: symbiosis, the free energy principle, and reciprocal multiscale integration
The notion of a physiological individuals has been developed and applied in the philosophy of biology to understand symbiosis, an understanding of which is key to theorising about the major…
Organisms or biological individuals? Combining physiological and evolutionary individuality
The definition of biological individuality is one of the most discussed topics in philosophy of biology, but current debate has focused almost exclusively on evolution-based accounts. Moreover,…
Individuality, subjectivity, and minimal cognition
The paper discusses several attempts to locate the boundary between metabolic activity and ‘minimal cognition’ and looks at differences between the kinds of individuality present in unicellular life, multicellularLife in general, and animals of several kinds.
Interactions within the Holobiont: On the Holobiont's Interactions of Its Microorganisms
I address the question of how we should understand the holobiont and offer to look at it 7 from the perspective of interactions. The debate about the holobiont centers on two is8 sues: where to place…
Non-equilibrium thermodynamics and the free energy principle in biology
- Biology & Philosophy
According to the free energy principle, life is an “inevitable and emergent property of any (ergodic) random dynamical system at non-equilibrium steady state that possesses a Markov blanket” (Friston…
Holobionts: Ecological communities, hybrids, or biological individuals? A metaphysical perspective on multispecies systems.
- Medicine, BiologyStudies in history and philosophy of biological and biomedical sciences
This paper argues that by claiming that holobionts are hybrids, and therefore, not biological individuals, the authors seem to be assuming a controversial position about the ontology of hybrids, which are conventionally characterized as a type of biological individual.
Invasive species and natural function in ecology
- Computer Science, GeographySynthese
It is argued no theory of function, which can support such normative conclusions, can be applied to large scale ecosystems, and ecological systems have causal structure, with small clusters of populations achieving functional arrangement.
Pregnant Females as Historical Individuals: An Insight From the Philosophy of Evo-Devo
- MedicineFrontiers in Psychology
It is argued that historical individuality differs from, and coexists with, other views of biological individuality as applied to pregnancy, but brings forward an important new insight which might help dissolve misguided conceptions.
SHOWING 1-10 OF 52 REFERENCES
Plant Individuality and Multilevel Selection Theory
The lesson I draw is that multilevel selection theorists are wrong to assume genetic heterogeneity necessarily results in evolutionary conflict that must be suppressed in order for selection to be suppressed.
Symbiosis, lateral function transfer and the (many) saplings of life
It is argued that the emergence of symbiotic individuals revives the importance of functional and adaptationist thinking in how the authors conceptualize the lineages of biological individuals and that, if they really want to hold onto tree of life thinking, they had better accept that new saplings appear and disappear all the time.
What is an organism? An immunological answer.
- Philosophy, MedicineHistory and philosophy of the life sciences
It is shown that one physiological field, immunology, offers a theory that makes possible a biological individuation based on physiological grounds.
Beyond society: the evolution of organismality
- Biology, MedicinePhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
This survey suggests that many of the traits commonly used to define organisms are not essential, including physical contiguity, indivisibility, clonality or high relatedness, development from a single cell, short-term and long-term genetic cotransmission, germ–soma separation and membership in the same species.
Individual versus social complexity, with particular reference to ant colonies
- Biology, MedicineBiological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Insect societies – colonies of ants, bees, wasps and termites – vary enormously in their social complexity. Social complexity is a broadly used term that encompasses many individual and colony‐level…
The units of evolutionary transition." Selection
The vegetable individual, in its relation to species" American Journal of Science and Arts, May 1855, translated by C
- F. Stone.
Darwinian spaces: Peter Godfrey-Smith on selection and evolution
Darwinian Populations and Natural Selection is a superb work, introducing an important analytical technique, and applying it to a range of difficult and contested issues within evolutionary theory.…
Individuals at the Center of Biology: Rudolf Leuckart’s Polymorphismus der Individuen and the Ongoing Narrative of Parts and Wholes. With an Annotated Translation
- Biology, MedicineJournal of the history of biology
It is argued that biological individuality was as central a problem to naturalists before 1859 as evolution, and that Leuckart’s contributions to it left a long legacy that persisted well into the twentieth century.