Dangerous human-made interference with climate: a GISS modelE study

  title={Dangerous human-made interference with climate: a GISS modelE study},
  author={James E. Hansen and M. Sato and Reto Ruedy and Pushker A. Kharecha and Andrew A. Lacis and R. Miller and Larissa S. Nazarenko and Ken K. Lo and Gavin A. Schmidt and Gary L. Russell and Igor Aleinov and Stefan Bauer and Ellen Baum and B. Cairns and Vittorio Canuto and Matthew R. Chandler and Y. Cheng and A. Cohen and Anthony D. Genio and Gregory Faluvegi and Erik Fleming and Andrew D. Friend and Timothy M. Hall and CM Jackman and Jeffrey A. Jonas and Maxwell Kelley and Nancy Y. Kiang and Dorothy M. Koch and Gordon J. Labow and Jean Lerner and Surabi Menon and Tica Novakov and V. Oinas and Jan P. Perlwitz and Judith Perlwitz and David Rind and Anastasia Romanou and Robert B. Schmunk and Drew T. Shindell and Peter H. Stone and S. W. Sun and David G. Streets and Nicholas Tausnev and D. Thresher and Nadine Unger and Mao-sung Yao and S F Zhang},
  journal={Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics},
We investigate the issue of "dangerous human-made interference with climate" using simulations with GISS modelE driven by measured or estimated forcings for 1880–2003 and extended to 2100 for IPCC greenhouse gas scenarios as well as the "alternative" scenario of Hansen and Sato (2004). Identification of "dangerous" effects is partly subjective, but we find evidence that added global warming of more than 1°C above the level in 2000 has effects that may be highly disruptive. The alternative… 

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