author={Clyde B. Mccoy and Lisa R. Metsch and Dale D. Chitwood and Christine C. Miles},
  journal={Substance Use \& Misuse},
  pages={789 - 804}
This paper examines barriers to health care utilization and the correlates associated with these barriers. As part of a larger study of health services utilization, the study sample of 1085 including injection drug users, other chronic users of heroin or cocaine, and a demographically similar group who had used neither heroin nor cocaine, was selected based on the criterion of not having received health care for at least one health problem within the previous 12 months. Both categories of… 

Type and pattern of illicit drug use and access to health care services for HIV-infected people.

Health care utilization is poorer for people who use illicit drugs than those who do not, and stopping drug use may facilitate improvements in health care utilization and HIV outcomes for this population.

“The Rock Always Comes First”: Drug Users' Accounts About Using Formal Health Care

The elements of the decision-making process involved in accessing formal health care among chronic and injecting street drug users are examined and researchers and treatment professionals may gain insights into new ways to improve health care access for this atrisk population.

Differences in HIV risk behavior of injection drug users in New York City by health care setting

Results show that IDU demographics and risk behaviors differ by health care setting, suggesting that risk reduction interventions should be tailored to health care settings, and suggest that community clinics and mobile medical units serve high-risk IDUs.

Predictors of medical service utilization among individuals with co-occurring HIV infection and substance abuse disorders

Interventions are needed that target HIV-infected persons with substance abuse disorders, particularly those that increase entry and retention in outpatient health care and thus decrease reliance on acute hospital-based services.

Lifetime Health Services Use by Male Drug-Abusing Offenders

A modified version of the Andersen and Newman model of health services use was used to examine how male drug-abusing offenders use health services during their lifetimes, with illness-level factors accounting for the majority of variance.

Problem drug users' experiences of employment and the benefit system

The issues surrounding employment and benefit uptake in England by individuals who use illicit drugs, in particular heroin and crack cocaine are examined to examine the wider context of education, training, drug use and treatment.

Factors Predicting Unmet Health Services Needs Among Incarcerated Substance Users

This 1998–1999 study of 661 incarcerated men in the Kentucky prison system focused on predictors of unmet physical, behavioral, and overall health care needs among chronic substance users, and found that White incarcerated drug users were more likely to report un met physical and overallhealth care needs than non-Whites and those with high school education or above were more than twice as likely.

Socioeconomic Marginality and Health Services Utilization Among Central Harlem Substance Users

Results are supportive of a public health model of drug user treatment that recommends that it occur as part of an integrated strategy addressing poverty, homelessness, violence, and related social problems.

Denial of pain medication by health care providers predicts in-hospital illicit drug use among individuals who use illicit drugs

The relationship between having ever been denied pain medication and having reported using illicit drugs in a Vancouver (British Columbia) cohort of illicit drug users was assessed.

“I'm a Health Nut!” Street Drug Users' Accounts of Self-Care Strategies

Self-care strategies among chronic and injecting drug users indicate that chronic drug users are actively involved in managing and improving their health and attempt to take self-protective actions, even while continuing to engage in active drug use.



A Comparison of the Need for Health Care and Use of Health Care by Injection-Drug Users, Other Chronic Drug Users, and Nondrug Users

Injection drug use and other chronic drug use decreased the likelihood of receiving health care treatment, whereas being female, having insurance, and a perceived health status of fair/poor increased the likelihood that you would receive health care.

Services for Substance Abusers in a Changing Health Care System

Data from a sample of 161 medical emergency, primary care, mental health, and substance abuse treatment programs in Dade County, Florida, reveal highly varied perceptions of managed care and illustrate that the relevance of provider organization ownership, type of services, and populations served for behavioral managed care analysis is still relevant.

Variation in Health Service Use Among HIV-lnfected Patients

The effects of sociodemographic factors on health service use among people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are assessed. Data are from a survey of 939 clients of the Robert Wood

Effects of chronic cocaine use on physical health: a prospective study in a general population sample.

Utilization of on-site primary care services by HIV-seropositive and seronegative drug users in a methadone maintenance program.

The feasibility of on-site primary care services and their use by human immunodeficiency virus HIV-seropositive and seronegative injecting drug users within an outpatient methadone maintenance

Injecting-related harm and treatment-seeking behaviour among injecting drug users.

Low threshold services, such as needle exchanges, may have to take a more proactive stance to encourage injectors to present with injecting-related problems, to help reduce injecting- related harms, especially the resulting medical complications, which would in turn relieve the pressure on other services.

Medical care for injection-drug users with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

Injection-drug use has become an important risk factor for infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and HIV infection has become well established among drug users in North America,

The Medical Complications of Drug Addiction and the Medical Assessment of the Intravenous Drug User: 25 Years Later

This review is intended to provide a historical context to this vast subject and suggest variability in the natural history of intravenous drug use, but as a disease archetype it is a useful pattern for predicting behavior.

Parenteral transmission of HIV among injection drug users: assessing the frequency of multiperson use of needles, syringes, cookers, cotton, and water.

Programs to limit parenteral transmission of HIV and other blood-borne infections among IDUs must consider all drug preparation and injection practices that could allow transfer of blood and blood-bourne infections amongIDUs.