author={George H. Anno and Robert W. Young and Ronald M. Bloom and John R. Mercier},
  journal={Health Physics},
Abstract— A review and analysis of the dose response relationship for the probability of acute lethality from prompt or short-term exposure to ionizing radiation is presented. The purpose of this analysis is to provide recommendations concerning estimates of casualties expected from radiation accidents, the use of nuclear weapons, or possible terrorist activities. Previous work on acute ionizing radiation-induced lethality risk together with a collection of dose response relationships are… 


Findings from the analyses of the dose-response relationship are reviewed with regard to different effects of acute radiation exposure for nuclear workers acutely exposed to gamma rays or gamma rays and neutrons as a result of radiation accidents at the Mayak Production Association.


This article will review ARS and discuss the possible mechanisms of MOF developing from ARS, and dose assessment on the basis of calculation from reconstruction of the radiation event may be required.

Development of age-dependent dose modification factors for acute radiation lethality

Animal and human data support increased radiosensitivity in infants, juveniles, and aging adults and DMFs provide a mechanism to account for age-dependent variability in health effects models and to determine the impact of age on casualty estimates.

Impact analysis of age on radiation casualty estimations for nuclear detonation scenarios

It is demonstrated that the inclusion of age-based demographic data and associated dose responses may result in significantly higher estimates of casualties depending on the location and age of the affected population.

Cytogenetic Biodosimetry for Radiation Disasters: Recent Advances

The development of an automated cytogenetic laboratory that can triage by exposure group and thereby efficiently differentiate radiation-exposed individuals from the “concerned public” following a disaster is systematically addressed.

Approximating the Probability of Mortality Due to Protracted Radiation Exposures

Approximate methods for estimating the probability of mortality due to radiological environments from nuclear weapon detonations or from a radiological dispersal device are presented and it is concluded that the values generated by HPAC are reasonable in the MARCELL model.

A Comparative Dose-response Relationship Between Sexes for Mortality and Morbidity of Radiation-induced Lung Injury in the Rhesus Macaque

The key parameters of morbidity and mortality support the conclusion that there is an absence of a sex influence on the radiation dose-response relationship for whole-thorax lung irradiation in the rhesus macaque.

Acute Radiation-induced GI-ARS and H-ARS in a Canine Model of Mixed Neutron/Gamma Relative to Reference Co-60 Gamma Radiation: A Retrospective Study

This analysis of a retrospective, unpublished study provided the dose response relationships in a canine model for the acute gastrointestinal syndrome relative to the acute hematopoietic syndrome due to mixed neutron/gamma radiation.



Risk estimators for radiation-induced bone marrow syndrome lethality in humans.

This manuscript provides risk estimators for acute lethality from radiation-induced injury to the bone marrow of humans after uniform total-body exposure to low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation for nuclear disaster risk assessment.

Response of Different Species to Total Body Irradiation

Some practical aspects of dosimetry and dose specification for whole body irradiation in anthropomorphic phantoms and biological factors affecting the occurrence of radiation syndromes are discussed.

Clinical studies of radiation effects in man: a preliminary report of a retrospective search for dose-relationships in the prodromal syndrome.

In developing the estimated residual dose (ERD) concept, the ERD Committee did not consider a form of radiation sickness so mild that medical care was not required but severe enough to cause performance failure that could result in death.

Estimation of median human lethal radiation dose computed from data on occupants of reinforced concrete structures in Nagasaki, Japan.

The median lethal dose was estimated from calculated doses to young adults who were inside two reinforced concrete buildings that remained standing in Nagasaki after the atomic detonation.

The relative biological effectiveness of mixed fission-neutron-gamma radiation on the hematopoietic syndrome in the canine: effect of therapy on survival.

Therapeutic support administered to lethally irradiated canines significantly improved survival and increased the LD50/30 independent of radiation quality, and clinical support after bilateral irradiation produced a similar DMF to those of mixed fission neutrons and gamma rays and 60Co gamma rays alone.

A comparison of dose-response models for death from hematological depression in different species.

  • M. D. MorrisT. Jones
  • Environmental Science
    International journal of radiation biology and related studies in physics, chemistry, and medicine
  • 1988
Seven different dose-response models are considered which are tested for validity against 105 studies of radiation-induced lethality experiments, and the probit and the logistic models seemed preferable over the Weibull model.

Environmental Risk Assessments Based on Bone Marrow Cell Kinetic.

Risks from protracted exposures from ionizing radiations, leukemia, and cancer are modeled for exposures to X-rays, photons, fission-produced neutrons, and neutrons produced by thermonuclear processes.

Dose-rate models for human survival after exposure to ionizing radiation

The model has predicted human LD/sub 50/s of 194, 250, 310, and 360 rad to marrow when the exposure time is a minute, an hour, a day, and a week, respectively.

Biological effects of protracted exposure to ionizing radiation: Review, analysis, and model development. Technical report, 15 Sep 86-20 Jul 90

The upper gastrointestinal distress model (UGIDM) is a two-compartment toxicokinetic model to simulate radiation-induced production and clearing of humoral substances involved in triggering UG distress.

Some effects of random dose measurement errors on analyses of atomic bomb survivor data.

  • E. Gilbert
  • Environmental Science, Physics
    Radiation research
  • 1984
It is found that the commonly applied practice of substituting 600 rad for doses exceeding this value definitely reduces bias in the presence of error and Restricting analyses to doses less than 200 rad reduces bias even more but at the price of considerable loss of power.