author={Isabel Gauthier and Michael J. Tarr and Jill Moylan and Adam W. Anderson and Pawel Skudlarski and John C. Gore},
  journal={Cognitive Neuropsychology},
  pages={143 - 164}
Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to compare brain activation associated with basic-level (e.g. bird) and subordinate-level (e.g. eagle) processing for both visual and semantic judgements. We localised the putative face area for 11 subjects, who also performed visual matching judgements for pictures and aurally presented words. The middle fusiform and occipital gyri were recruited for subordinate minus basic visual judgements, reflecting additional perceptual processing. When the… 

Individuating Faces and Common Objects Produces Equal Responses in Putative Face-Processing Areas in the Ventral Occipitotemporal Cortex

Findings from an fMRI study of identity discrimination of faces and objects demonstrate the FFA and OFA are equally responsive to processing stimuli at the level of individuals (i.e., individuation), be they human faces or non-face objects.

A Reevaluation of the Electrophysiological Correlates of Expert Object Processing

Behavioral results showed that subordinate-level but not basic-level training improved subordinate discrimination of trained exemplar, novel exemplars, and exemplars from novel species, and, contrary to perspectives attempting to explain visual expertise solely in terms of subordinates, suggest that expertise enhances neural responses of both basic and subordinate processing.

The Visual What For Area: Words and pictures in the left fusiform gyrus

Is the Fusiform Face Area Specialized for Faces, Individuation, or Expert Individuation?

The results suggest that distinct populations of neurons in human FG may be tuned to the features needed to individuate the members of different object classes, as has been reported in monkey inferotemporal cortex, and that the FFA contains neurons tuned for individuating faces.

Tilburg University Hemispheric asymmetries for whole-based and part-based faceprocessing in the human brain Rossion,

The present PET study identifies the anatomical localization of these effects in well-defined regions of the middle fusiform gyri of both hemispheres as a double dissociation between two modes of face processing.

Hemispheric Asymmetries for Whole-Based and Part-Based Face Processing in the Human Fusiform Gyrus

The present PET study identifies the anatomical localization of these effects in well-defined regions of the middle fusiform gyri of both hemispheres as a double dissociation between two modes of face processing.

Neural timing of visual implicit categorization.

Event-Related Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of the Extrastriate Cortex Response to a Categorically Ambiguous Stimulus Primed by Letters and Familiar Geometric Figures

The authors used an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging design with category priming to record the response elicited by the passive viewing of single letters, geometric figures, and of the categorically ambiguous stimulus “O” that pertains to both sets of familiar symbols, supporting the existence of a neural substrate for the abstract category of letters.

Levels of categorization in visual recognition studied using functional magnetic resonance imaging

The functional organization of human extrastriate cortex: a PET-rCBF study of selective attention to faces and locations

The functional dissociation of human extrastriate cortical processing streams for the perception of face identity and location was investigated in healthy men by measuring visual task-related changes

Face-Specific Processing in the Human Fusiform Gyrus

It is demonstrated that both faces and flowers activate large and partially overlapping regions of inferior extrastriate cortex, and a smaller region, located primarily in the right lateral fusiform gyrus, is activated specifically by faces.

The Fusiform Face Area: A Module in Human Extrastriate Cortex Specialized for Face Perception

The data allow us to reject alternative accounts of the function of the fusiform face area (area “FF”) that appeal to visual attention, subordinate-level classification, or general processing of any animate or human forms, demonstrating that this region is selectively involved in the perception of faces.

Differential Sensitivity of Human Visual Cortex to Faces, Letterstrings, and Textures: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

Different regions of ventral extrastriate cortex are specialized for processing the perceptual features of faces and letterstrings, and that these regions are intermediate between earlier processing in striate and peristriates cortex, and later lexical, semantic, and associative processing in downstream cortical regions.

Activation of the middle fusiform 'face area' increases with expertise in recognizing novel objects

Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure changes associated with increasing expertise in brain areas selected for their face preference, and evidence is presented that expertise recruits the fusiform gyrus 'face area'.


The results indicate that generalisation of the FFA response across very different face types cannot be explained in terms of a specific response to a salient facial feature such as the eyes or a more general response to heads.

Shape Integration for Visual Object Recognition and Its Implication in Category-Specific Visual Agnosia

It was determined that the integration deficit is specific to the retrieval of shape knowledge from memory and does not affect the encoding of the properties of visual stimuli.

Human Brain Language Areas Identified by Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Although partly in conflict with the classical model of language localization, FMRI findings are generally compatible with reported lesion data and provide additional support for ongoing efforts to refine and extend the classicalmodel.