DNA methylation patterns and epigenetic memory.

  title={DNA methylation patterns and epigenetic memory.},
  author={Adrian Bird},
  journal={Genes \& development},
  volume={16 1},
  • A. Bird
  • Published 2002
  • Biology
  • Genes & development
The character of a cell is defined by its constituent proteins, which are the result of specific patterns of gene expression. Crucial determinants of gene expression patterns are DNA-binding transcription factors that choose genes for transcriptional activation or repression by recognizing the sequence of DNA bases in their promoter regions. Interaction of these factors with their cognate sequences triggers a chain of events, often involving changes in the structure of chromatin, that leads to… 

Figures from this paper

The role of DNA methylation and histone modifications in transcriptional regulation in humans.
Although the field of genetics has grown by leaps and bounds within the last decade due to the completion and availability of the human genome sequence, transcriptional regulation still cannot be
Epigenetic regulation of lymphoid specific gene sets.
Both DNA methylation and the Polycomb group of proteins (PcG) function as alternative systems of epigenetic memory in lymphoid cells and influence lymphoid development and rearrangement of IgH genes.
A Comprehensive View of the Epigenetic Landscape Part I: DNA Methylation, Passive and Active DNA Demethylation Pathways and Histone Variants
In this review, the recent understanding of DNA methylation, cytosine derivatives, active and passive demethylation pathways as well as histone variants are summarized.
Epigenetics and Disease
The importance of both established and novel molecular concepts that may underlie the role of DNA methylation in cancer are discussed, which suggest a role for histone octamers in the establishment ofDNA methylation patterns.
Epigenetic remodelling of DNA in cancer.
This review will provide an update on the most recent information about aberrant DNA methylation in cancer and on innovative therapeutic strategies of "epigenetic remodelling" of human malignancies, with particular attention to the immunologic and immunotherapeutic potential of this approach.
Chromatin modifier enzymes, the histone code and cancer.
Putting DNA methylation in context: from genomes to gene expression in plants.
Interplay between DNA methylation, histone modification and chromatin remodeling in stem cells and during development.
This review will discuss how epigenetic factors cooperate to establish cell- and tissue-specific DNA methylation profiles, which are the basis for cell differentiation and development in mammals.


DNA methylation represses transcription in vivo
An embryo-specific element from the CpG island sequence upstream of Aprt is characterized that can protect itself from de novo methylation in transgenic mice as well as reduce methylation of flanking sequences.
The Role of DNA Methylation in Mammalian Epigenetics
M Mammals appear to have taken advantage of the possibilities afforded by cytosine methylation to provide a heritable mechanism for altering DNA-protein interactions to assist in such silencing of X-linked and imprinted genes.
DNA Methylation Is the Primary Silencing Mechanism for a Set of Germ Line- and Tumor-Specific Genes with a CpG-Rich Promoter
MAGE-type genes belong to a unique subset of germ line-specific genes that use DNA methylation as a primary silencing mechanism, and are found to have promoters with a high CpG content.
Cytosine methylation and mammalian development.
It is reported here that the methylation status of the 5' regions of a panel of tissue-specific genes could not be correlated with expression in tissues of fetal and newborn mice, suggesting that the numerous published expression-methylation correlations may have described not a cause but a consequence of transcriptional activation.
DNA modification mechanisms and gene activity during development
This article suggests mechanisms that may account for the differentiated state of dividing or nondividing cells and that also attempt to explain the ordered switching on or off of genes during development.
The DNA methyltransferases of mammals.
The biological significance of 5-methylcytosine was in doubt for many years, but is no longer, and it has become clear that programmed changes in methylation patterns are less important in the regulation of mammalian development than was previously believed.
Species‐specific organization of CpG island promoters at mammalian homologous genes
The results show that CpG island promoters associated with tissue‐specific genes, such as the human α‐globin, are bound by ubiquitous factors that allow a constitutive low level of expression in many cell types.
Modulation of DNA Binding Protein Affinity Directly Affects Target Site Demethylation
The well-defined Escherichia coli lac repressor/operator system in human cells is utilized to determine whether protein binding to methylated DNA, in a region that is neither a replication origin nor a promoter, can also lead to demethylation of the binding sites.
Role for DNA methylation in genomic imprinting