DNA Damage Response Pathways in Tumor Suppression and Cancer Treatment

@article{Liang2008DNADR,
  title={DNA Damage Response Pathways in Tumor Suppression and Cancer Treatment},
  author={Yulong Liang and Shiaw-Yih Lin and Francis Charles Brunicardi and John Alan Goss and Kaiyi Li},
  journal={World Journal of Surgery},
  year={2008},
  volume={33},
  pages={661-666}
}
Mammalian cells are frequently at risk of DNA damage from multiple sources. Accordingly, cells have evolved the DNA damage response (DDR) pathways to monitor the integrity of their genome. Conceptually, DDR pathways contain three major components (some with overlapping functions): sensors, signal transducers, and effectors. At the level of sensors, ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) and ATR (ATM-Rad3-related) are proximal kinases that act as the core sensors of and are central to the entire… 
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