author={Z. Jane Wang},
  journal={Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics},
  • Z. J. Wang
  • Published 2005
  • Physics
  • Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics
▪ Abstract “What force does an insect wing generate?” Finding answers to this enduring question is an essential step toward our understanding of interactions of moving objects with fluids that enable most living species such as insects, birds, and fish to travel efficiently and us to follow similar suit with sails, oars, and airfoils. We give a brief history of research in insect flight and discuss recent findings in unsteady aerodynamics of flapping flight at intermediate range Reynolds… 

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INSECTS cannot fly, according to the conventional laws of aerodynamics: during flapping flight, their wings produce more lift than during steady motion at the same velocities and angles of attack1–5.

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    Symposia of the Society for Experimental Biology
  • 1995
The results of flow visualization experiments on tethered insects are reviewed in an attempt to identify the high-lift mechanisms actually employed, including the fling/peel mechanism, which is clearly used by some insects and which is probably a general phenomenon for flapping insect flight.

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