author={Helena Kopp Kallner and Marianne Persson and Marcus Thuresson and Daniel Altman and Isaac Shemer and Malin Thorsell and Elisabeth Wikstrom Shemer},
  journal={International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care},
  pages={181 - 187}
Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of sensitivity and specificity of cervical lesions by the low-cost, portable Gynocular colposcope and a stationary colposcope, in women referred for colposcopy with abnormal cervical cytology. Methods: A randomized cross-over clinical trial for evaluating the diagnostic accuracy in detecting cervical lesions by the Gynocular and a stationary colposcope. The Swede score systematic colposcopy system was used for evaluation… 
Screening test accuracy of portable devices that can be used to perform colposcopy for detecting CIN2+ in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Few studies have evaluated portable devices able to perform colposcopy, so their accuracy for the detection of CIN2+ remains uncertain, so future studies should include patient-relevant and long-term outcomes.
Screening test accuracy to improve detection of precancerous lesions of the cervix in women living with HIV: a study protocol
This study will assess alternative screening methods that could improve sensitivity and specificity in women living with humanimmunodeficiency virus (WLHIV) in Southern Africa and conduct a paired, prospective, screening test accuracy study among consecutive, eligible women aged 18–65 years receiving treatment for HIV/AIDS.
A systematic review of handheld tools in lieu of colposcopy for cervical neoplasia and female genital schistosomiasis
Visualization of the lesions in the lower genital tract is the mainstay for diagnosis of the four lesions found in female genital schistosomiasis (FGS), but colposcopes are generally not available in
Advances in technologies for cervical cancer detection in low-resource settings
The standard of care for cervical cancer screening and diagnosis in high- and low-resource settings, biomarkers that correlate to cervical precancer and cancer, and needs for new tests are discussed, with a focus on tests that are already in use in LMICs or have the potential to be adapted for use.
Cervical Cancer Prevention in Low and Middle Income Countries.
The current state of cervical cancer prevention in low and middle income countries, the innovations being employed to improve outcomes, and consideration of the next steps needed as the authors move towards global elimination are outlined.


Evaluation of Stationary Colposcope and the Gynocular, by the Swede Score Systematic Colposcopic System in VIA Positive Women
It was showed that few VIA-positive women who resulted positive for visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid had CIN2+ lesions or HPV infection, and colposcopy by Swede score could offer a more accurate screening and selection for immediate treatment of cervical lesions in low-resource settings.
Agreement of Colposcope and Gynocular in Assessment of Cervical Lesions by Swede Score: A Randomized, Crossover Pilot Trial
The study shows that in visual inspection with acetic acid–positive women, a battery-driven, pocket-sized colposcope has a significant level of agreement with stationary colposcopy in assessing cervical lesions.
Evaluation of the accuracy in detecting cervical lesions by nurses versus doctors using a stationary colposcope and Gynocular in a low-resource setting
It is shown that VIA nurses can perform colposcopy and Swede scores obtained by nurses using the Gynocular could offer an accurate cervical diagnostic approach in low resource settings.
Cytological surveillance compared with immediate referral for colposcopy in management of women with low grade cervical abnormalities: multicentre randomised controlled trial
  • J. Little
  • Medicine
    BMJ : British Medical Journal
  • 2009
Compared with cytological surveillance, a policy of immediate colposcopy detects more cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade II or worse, and some more grade III or worse; such a policy is associated with a higher rate of reported after effects, which are more severe and of longer duration than those associated with cytologies.
The Swede Score: Evaluation of a Scoring System Designed to Improve the Predictive Value of Colposcopy
This evaluation aimed to validate the Swede score within a London teaching hospital colposcopy unit, and it is possible that higher scores within this system might be used to more accurately predict CIN 2 or higher.
Cost-effectiveness of active versus conservative colposcopic management of mild dyskaryosis.
Active management of low-grade disease is associated with lower hospital and patient costs compared with the conservative strategy and is more cost-effective compared with conservative management.
Psychosocial Impact of Alternative Management Policies for Low-Grade Cervical Abnormalities: Results from the TOMBOLA Randomised Controlled Trial
Policy-makers, clinicians, and women themselves can be reassured that neither management policy has a significantly greater psychosocial cost.
Risk of invasive cervical cancer in relation to clinical investigation and treatment after abnormal cytology: A population‐based case–control study
Low‐grade as well as high-grade squamous atypical cytology results may warrant histological investigation, treatment reduced cancer risk even when histology was negative or showed low‐grade atypia indicating a need for improvements in the diagnosis of high‐grade lesions, and laser conisation was the most effective treatment.
Risk of invasive cervical cancer in relation to management of abnormal Pap smear results.