author={Bruce W. Tuckman},
  journal={Psychological bulletin},
  • B. Tuckman
  • Published 1 June 1965
  • Psychology
  • Psychological bulletin
50 articles dealing with stages of group development over time are separated by group setting: therapy-group studies, T-group studies, and natural- and laboratory-group studies. The stages identified in these articles are separated into those descriptive of social or interpersonal group activities a 

A Kleinian analysis of group development

Various theoretical models have been used to study stages of group development. This paper analyzes the early phases of a therapy group using Melanie Klein's theory of developmental positions. In

Emergence of Distinct Verbal Phases in Group Therapy

Results indicated that individual Ss develop similar patterns of response over time, and supported a two-stage development of several of the response measures but with a greater number of sessions a different pattern may evolve.

Planning for groups based on their developmental phases

Abstract Knowledge about group developmental stages is used as an aid in diagnosing group and individual status and movement, in planning the course of the group, and in aiding its progress.

Developmental Patterns in Open-Ended Groups

This paper is a continuation of the authors' study of the open-ended group. Herein are examined variations in group development in four types of open-ended groups classified by frequency and extent

The Influence of Task Type and Designated Leaders on Developmental Patterns in Groups

The purpose of this research was to explore developmental patterns in groups with and withoutformal leaders and with different tasks. Six groups operating within a group relations conference

Empirical Analysis of Group Development

Selected sessions of two long-term psychotherapy groups were rated using the Gottschalk-Gleser anxiety and hostility verbal content analysis scales. O-factor analytic techniques were used to identify

A chakra-based model of group development

Abstract This article describes a model for the sequential stages of group development based on the yogic chakra system. The chakra-based model is compared with other models of group developmental

Developmental Patterns in Self-Analytic Groups

This study outlines and tests a dialectical model of group development in self-analytic training groups. Part 1 establishes dimensions that differentiate between developmental phases using factor

Group Imago and the Stages of Group Development

This article emphasizes similarities between Berne's concept of group imago adjustment and the stages of group development as conceptualized by Tuckman (1965) and Lacoursiere (1980), highlighting t...

A model for adolescent group psychotherapy

Adolescent groups progress through recognizable phases of development during their life cycle. Knowledge of the sequencing of these phases and an understanding of the tasks for each phase can enhance



The use of group processes in teaching group dynamics.

A method of teaching group dynamics by forming groups is described and some of our experience with it detailed. In evaluating the experience, the opinions of participants vary widely but most report

The Therapeutic Factors of Group-Analytical Treatment

The therapeutic factors in two sexually mixed groups of 7 members each have been examined. It was found that certain field forces may have a generally beneficial effect, such as the common

The Use of Group Therapy in Psychoses

During a recent visit by the psychiatrist to discuss problems of sex with the group, James showed again the realness of his security and integrated social self.

T-Group Theory and Laboratory Method.

The T (training) -group is a training device. In this group 10-20 people meet with no agenda to explore what happens naturally in a group and how the group tries to solve the problems that evolve.

Human Relations Training: How a Group Grows

  • M. Miles
  • Education
    Teachers College Record: The Voice of Scholarship in Education
  • 1953
BY NOW it is almost commonplace to say that the basic problems of our times are social problems, and that the more crucial skills of today are the skills of collaboration and cooperative

The Moral Judgment of the Child

The Moral Judgment of the Child By Jean Piaget The seminal book by this century's most important developmental psychologist chronicles the evolution of children's moral thinking from preschool to

Childhood and Society

The original and vastly influential ideas of Erik H. Erikson underlie much of our understanding of human development. His insights into the interdependence of the individuals' growth and historical

Modern Clinical Psychiatry

  • H. Fischer
  • Psychology
    The Indian Medical Gazette
  • 1939
This eighth edition is the first not to bear the name of Arthur B. Noyes, the original and sole author of the first four editions. Lawrence C. Kolb alone takes over its name after being sole author

Childhood and Society.

The theme of the volume is that it is human to have a long childhood which will leave a lifelong residue of emotional immaturity in man.


The book discusses the various existing laboratory aids to diagnosis, as well as indicating the need for more uniform accurate diagnostic procedures, which would certainly aid in the definition of the magnitude of the problem.