author={Y. Sato and Mikio Kimura and H. Fukumi},
  journal={The Lancet},
Antibodies against two physicochemically purified haemagglutinins (HAs) of Bordetella pertussis (filamentous HA and leucocytosis-promoting-factor HA) protect laboratory animals from pertussis. A vaccine containing these two HAs was prepared and tested in trials involving about 5000 children. Culture supernatant of Bordetella pertussis, phase I, was treated with ammonium sulphate, and a crude extract of the HAs was extracted from the precipitate by the use of concentrated sodium chloride. This… 
Development of acellular pertussis vaccines.
  • Y. Sato, H. Sato
  • Medicine
    Biologicals : journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
  • 1999
It was discovered that the PT toxoid in the vaccine is the major and essential protective antigen, which should be sufficient for protection against pertussis.
Trial of a new acellular pertussis vaccine in healthy adult volunteers.
Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a new acellular pertussis vaccine were tested in healthy adults and all vaccinees had good serum antibody responses to vaccine antigens measured by ELISA and by neutralization of its effects on Chinese hamster ovary cells.
Bordetella pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin: evaluation as a protective antigen and colonization factor in a mouse respiratory infection model
It is demonstrated that systemic immunization with FHA can provide significant protection against B. pertussis infection in both the lower and upper respiratory tract of mice as defined by the lungs and trachea, respectively; (ii) that this protection is mediated primarily by serum antibodies to FHA, which transudate into respiratory secretions; and (iii) that FHA is an importantupper respiratory tract colonization factor.
New Pertussis Vaccines: A Need and a Challenge.
  • D. Hozbor
  • Medicine
    Advances in experimental medicine and biology
  • 2019
According to their composition of few immunogens, the aP vaccines seem to be exerting a greater selection pressure on the circulating bacterial population causing the prevalence of bacterial isolates defective in the expression of vaccine antigens.
An improved whole cell pertussis vaccine with reduced content of endotoxin
An improved whole cell pertussis vaccine, designated as Plow, which is low in endotoxicity due to a chemical extraction of lipo-oligosaccharide (LOS) from the outer membrane, was evaluated for
Immunogenicity of glutaraldehyde inactivated pertussis vaccine.
The agglutinin production in mice against various types of GIPV preparations and HIPV were very similar irrespective of the potency of the preparations, which depended upon the conditions of inactivation with glutaraldehyde.
Pertussis agglutinogen: an immunogen and an allergen.
  • J. Wilkins
  • Medicine
    American journal of diseases of children
  • 1986
In my opinion the literature does not support an inherent toxicity in the modern whole-cell or partially purified vaccines (vaccines that have passed the "toxicity" or body-weight-gain test), but rather supports an allergic reaction following inoculation into an already actively or passively immunized individual.
Role of Pertussigen (Pertussis Toxin) on the Mouse Protective Activity of Vaccines Made from Bordetella Species
Observations show that antigens other than Ptx are responsible for the protection, and that Ptx acts non‐specifically to enhance the mouse protective action of those antIGens.
Pertussis vaccine: present status and future prospects.
There is a need for acellular pertussis vaccines of low toxicity which will prevent colonization and also protect against the disease symptoms, and vaccines containing detoxified toxin plus one or more purified adhesins are envisaged at present.
Recombinant acellular pertussis vaccine--from the laboratory to the clinic: improving the quality of the immune response.
This genetically inactivated pertussis toxin was tested extensively in animal models and clinical trials and was found to induce an immune response that is superior in quality and quantity to that induced by the vaccines produced by conventional technologies.


Synergistic effect of Bordetella pertussis lymphocytosis-promoting factor on protective activities of isolated Bordetella antigens in mice
LPF was found to enhance the protective activities of filamentous hemagglutinin, 22S antigen, and fimbriae isolated from B. pertussis and to be ineffective at enhancing the protective activity of antigenic preparations.
Role of antibody to leukocytosis-promoting factor hemagglutinin and to filamentous hemagglutinin in immunity to pertussis
Both anti-LPF.HA and anti-FHA enhanced the clearance of B. pertussis from the lung and prevented leukocytosis which normally occurs after aerosol infection of mice with B.pertussis, as evidenced by survival and a normal rate of gain in body weight.
Separation and purification of the hemagglutinins from Bordetella pertussis.
The role of the filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) and the lymphocytosis-promoting factor hemagglutinin (LPF) in pertussis pathogenesis and immunity is the subject of active investigation. To be certain
Leukocytosis-Promoting Factor of Bordetella pertussis III. Its Identity with Protective Antigen
Active protection tests in mice demonstrated strong protective activities of 80 international protective units per mg of protein in LPF preparations of each strain toxoided by mild Formalin treatment, indicating that anti-LPF is one of the protective antibodies.
Mouse-protecting and histamine-sensitizing activities of pertussigen and fimbrial hemagglutinin from Bordetella pertussis
Mice were protected by a 1.7-microgram/mouse dose of pertussigen which was free of detectable FHA and was detoxified by treatment with glutaraldehyde, while sera lacking anti-pertussigen antibodies but containing high concentrations of anti-FHA antibodies did not protect mice.
Attempts at analysis of toxicity of pertussis vaccine. III. Effects of endotoxin on leukocytosis in mice due to lymphocytosis-promoting factor and reference preparations for determination of lymphocytosis-promoting factor.
Results showed that an LPF material to be tested for its possible effects on the lymphatic tissues or the reticuloendothelial system should be free from endotoxin, and a common reference preparation available for any test materials, irrespective of presence or absence of endotoxin will be impracticable.
Endotoxin, histamine-sensitizing factor and lymphocytosis-promoting factor contents of pertussis vaccines produced in Japan.
The amounts of endotoxin, histamine-sensitizing factor and lymphocytosis-promoting factor contained in combined diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus and combined diphteria-pertussis vaccines recently
Separation and characterization of two distinct hemagglutinins contained in purified leukocytosis-promoting factor from Bordetella pertussis.
1. The leukocytosis-promoting factor of Bordetella pertussis was found to contain two hemagglutinins with different susceptibilities to papain and separable from each other by agarose gel filtration
A simple chemically defined medium for the production of phase I Bordetella pertussis.
A simple, chemically defined medium consisting of sodium glutamate, proline, cystine, salts, and growth factors is described, which is suitable for the large-scale production of phase I Bordetella pertussis, which yielded vaccines which were non-toxic to mice and guinea pigs and had good mouse-protective antigen levels.
Japan's experience in pertussis epidemiology and vaccination in the past thirty years.
  • K. Kanai
  • Medicine
    Japanese journal of medical science & biology
  • 1980
Though the recent decrease of the vaccine acceptance rate was due to the public reaction to rather imbalaanced arguments concerning the vaccine risk, it is also true that a more potent and less toxic component vaccine is urgently needed at this moment.