author={Elena S. Craft and Aquel Abu-Qare and Meghan M. Flaherty and Melissa C Garofolo and Heather L Rincavage and Mohamed B. Abou‐Donia},
  journal={Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B},
  pages={297 - 317}
Depleted uranium (DU) is a by-product from the chemical enrichment of naturally occurring uranium. Natural uranium is comprised of three radioactive isotopes: 238U, 235U, and 234U. This enrichment process reduces the radioactivity of DU to roughly 30% of that of natural uranium. Nonmilitary uses of DU include counterweights in airplanes, shields against radiation in medical radiotherapy units and transport of radioactive isotopes. DU has also been used during wartime in heavy tank armor, armor… 
The Chemistry and Toxicology of Depleted Uranium
Natural uranium is comprised of three radioactive isotopes: 238U, 235U, and 234U. Depleted uranium (DU) is a byproduct of the processes for the enrichment of the naturally occurring 235U isotope. The
Exposure Pathways and Health Effects Associated with Chemical and Radiological Toxicity of Natural Uranium: A Review
Natural uranium exposure derives from the mining, milling, and processing of uranium ore, as well as from ingestion of groundwater that is naturally contaminated with uranium, which results in health effects at or below established exposure standards.
Contamination with Depleted or Enriched Uranium Differently Affects Steroidogenesis Metabolism in Rat
Results show for the first time a differential effect among depleted or enriched uranium contamination on testicular steroidogenesis, and it appears that the deleterious effects of uranium are mainly due to the radiological activity of the compound.
Renal dysfunction induced by long-term exposure to depleted uranium in rats
It was concluded that DU could accumulate in kidneys for a long period, and causes kidney injury by the toxic chemical/radioactive action such as renal dysfunction and structural damage.
Renal Effects of Exposure to Natural and Depleted Uranium: A Review of the Epidemiologic and Experimental Data
The kidney was observed to be a target of uranium toxicity following oral and implantation exposure routes in several animal species, and the interpretation and importance of the observed changes in biomarkers of proximal tubule function are important questions that indicate the need for additional clinical, epidemiological, and experimental research.
Health effects of uranium: new research findings
A review of the health effects of uranium mining, with an emphasis on newer findings (2005–2011) and the update of the toxicologic evidence on uranium adds to the established findings regarding nephrotoxicity, genotoxicity, and developmental defects.
Urânio Exaurido: Origem, aplicações e suas consequências
Depleted uranium is almost entirely composed of the 238U isotope (uranium-238) and is a residue of the enrichment or reprocessing process of natural uranium to obtain the 235U isotope (Uranium-235),
Uranium and Lead Intoxication Hazards Induce Hepatotoxicity In Rats; Biochemical, Histochemical And Histopathological Studies
It could be concluded that exposure to uranium as compared to lead imposes a potent toxic effect on liver cells listing as glycogen depletion, cellular infiltration, and liver architecture in the form of initiation of periportal fibrosis that may progress to liver cirrhosis.


Properties, use and health effects of depleted uranium (DU): a general overview.
Depleted uranium—the growing concern
Exposure to depleted uranium is implicated in kidney damage, mutagenicity, cancer, inhibition of bone, neurological deficits, significant decrease in the pregnancy rate in mice and adverse effects on the reproductive and central nervous systems.
Acute toxicity of uranium in rats and mice
The interest of this question has increased following the accident at Chernobyl on 26 April 1986, where it is known that Chernobyl reactor was fueled with about 200 tons of uranium dioxide packaged in 1661 fuel assemblies.
Detection of depleted uranium in biological samples from Gulf War veterans.
Urine samples from individuals enrolled in the Depleted Uranium Follow-Up Program at the Baltimore Veterans Administration Medical Center were examined for uranium content, and the absence of DU was demonstrated in soldiers who suspect exposure by inhalation or ingestion.
Civilian and military uses of depleted uranium: environmental and health problems.
The recent military uses of depleted uranium, the possible effects of its environmental diffusion are discussed and the target organ is the kidney.
Chemical Toxicity of Uranium Hexafluoride Compared to Acute Effects of Radiation
The chemical effects from acute exposures to uranium hexafluoride are compared to the nonstochastic effects from acute radiation doses of 25 rems to the whole body and 300 rems to the thyroid. The
Uranium and Uranium Compounds
An overview of uranium and uranium compounds with an emphasis on their relevance to chemical technology is provided. Uranium and its compounds have many uses both potential and applied; examples
Potential late health effects of depleted uranium and tungsten used in armor-piercing munitions: comparison of neoplastic transformation and genotoxicity with the known carcinogen nickel.
It is demonstrated that soluble and insoluble DU compounds can transform cells to the tumorigenic phenotype, as characterized by morphological, biochemical, and oncogenic changes consistent with tumor cell behavior.
Overview of Toxicity Data and Risk Assessment Methods for Evaluating the Chemical Effects of Depleted Uranium Compounds
In the United States, depleted uranium is handled or used in several chemical forms by both governmental agencies and private industry (primarily companies producing and machining depleted uranium