author={Abanoub Mikhael and Kristina Jur{\vc}i{\'c} and C{\'e}line M. Schneider and David Karr and Gregory L. Fisher and Travis D Fridgen and Alberto Diego-Taboada and Paris E. Georghiou and Grahame Mackenzie and Joseph H Banoub},
  journal={Rapid communications in mass spectrometry : RCM},
RATIONALE We report the unsolved molecular structure of the complex biopolymer sporopollenin exine extracted form Lycopodium clavatum pollen grains. METHODS TOF-SIMS and CID-MS/MS, MALDI-TOF-MS and CID-TOF/TOF-MS/MS were used for the analysis of this complex biopolymer sporopollenin exine extracted from Lycopodium clavatum. Solid-state 1 H- and 13 C-NMR, 2D 1 H-1 H NOESY, Rotor-synchronized 13 C{1 H} HSQC, and 13 C{1 H} multi CP-MAS NMR experiments were used to confirm the structural… 

The Toughest Material in the Plant Kingdom: An Update on Sporopollenin

The cross-disciplinary efforts to solve the sporopollenin composition puzzle are examined and a working model of sporopollin’s molecular structure and biosynthesis is illustrated, including the degree of aromaticity, cross-linkage profiles, and extent of chemical conservation of sporipollenin among land plants are illustrated.

Sporopollenin-inspired design and synthesis of robust polymeric materials

Sporopollenin is a mechanically robust and chemically inert biopolymer that constitutes the outer protective exine layer of plant spores and pollen grains. Recent investigation of the molecular

Role of Sporopollenin Shell Interfacial Properties in Protein Adsorption.

The potential of sporopollenin shells to adsorb proteins, highlights the critical role of sporipollenin shell's interfacial properties in protein adsorption, and identifies the mechanism of protein adsorbent on sporopollin shells are demonstrated.

Spore exines increase vitamin D clinical bioavailability by mucoadhesion and bile triggered release.

The Uptake of Sporopollenin Exine Capsules and Associated Bioavailability of Adsorbed Oestradiol in Selected Aquatic Invertebrates

The aim of the present work was to determine whether oestradiol (E2) is ‘bioavailable’ to bioindicator species, either pre-adsorbed to, or in the presence of, SpECs.

Biobased Spore Microcapsules for Asphalt Self-Healing.

Asphalt pavements and bituminous composites are majorly damaged by bitumen aging and fatigue cracking by traffic load. To add, maintenance and reparation of asphalt pavements is expensive and also

A biological nanofoam: The wall of coniferous bisaccate pollen

The outer layer of the pollen grain, the exine, plays a key role in the survival of terrestrial plant life. However, the exine structure in different groups of plants remains enigmatic. Here, modern



Sporopollenin, The Least Known Yet Toughest Natural Biopolymer

Sporopollenin is highly cross-linked polymer composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen that is extraordinarily stable and has been found chemically intact in sedimentary rocks some 500 million year

Viability of plant spore exine capsules for microencapsulation

Sporopollenin exine capsules (SECs) (outer exoskeletal wall of the spores of Lycopodium clavatum) were extracted and examined for their potential use as microcapsules. They were shown, by laser

The Nature of Oxygen in Sporopollenin from the Pollen of Typha angustifolia L.

Interpretation of the experimental data shows that the greater part of oxygen found in sporopollenin originates from hydroxyl groups and must be derived from aliphatics and not from aromatics.

p-coumaric acid — a monomer in the sporopollenin skeleton

Sporopollenin obtained from wings of Pinus mugo (Turra) pollen was analysed by pyrolysis mass spectrometry and the effects of AII3 treatment indicate that the p-coumaric acid might be bound by ether linkages.

Biomacromolecules of Algae and Plants and their Fossil Analogues

It is concluded that extant sporopollenin consists of the aromatic type, whereas the aliphatic component of fossil sporopollin is due to early-diagenetic oxidative polymerization of unsaturated lipids.

Sporopollenin monomer biosynthesis in arabidopsis

This review illuminates the outlines of a biosynthetic pathway involved in generating monomer constituents of the sporopollenin biopolymer component of the pollen wall.