author={Hwan Su Yoon and Kirsten M. M{\"u}ller and Robert G. Sheath and Franklyn D. Ott and Debashish Bhattacharya},
  journal={Journal of Phycology},
Previous phylogenetic studies of the Rhodophyta have provided a framework for understanding red algal phylogeny, but there still exists the need for a comprehensive analysis using a broad sampling of taxa and sufficient phylogenetic information to clearly define the major lineages. In this study, we determined 48 sequences of the PSI P700 chl a apoprotein A1 (psaA) and rbcL coding regions and established a robust red algal phylogeny to identify the major clades. The tree included most of the… 

Phylogenetic analysis of a cryptic microscopic red alga

The phylogenetic placement of this new epiphyte in the redAlgae tree of life has helped to uncover a potentially new order and further clarify red algal diversity.

Evidence of ancient genome reduction in red algae (Rhodophyta)

Analysis of orthologous gene gains and losses identifies two putative major phases of genome reduction: in the stem lineage leading to all red algae resulting in the loss of major functions such as flagellae and basal bodies, the glycosyl‐phosphatidylinositol anchor biosynthesis pathway, and the autophagy regulation pathway.

Actin Gene Family Dynamics in Cryptomonads and Red Algae

This study provides new insight into the evolution and divergence of actin genes in cryptomonads and red algae, and underscores the challenges associated with heterogeneity in actin sequence evolution and ortholog/paralog detection.

Red Algal Phylogenomics Provides a Robust Framework for Inferring Evolution of Key Metabolic Pathways

This analysis revealed losses of the mevalonate pathway on at least three separate occasions in lineages that contain Cyanidioschyzon, Porphyridium, and Chondrus, establishing a framework for in-depth studies of the origin and evolution of genes and metabolic pathways in Rhodophyta.

Divergence time estimates and the evolution of major lineages in the florideophyte red algae

This research provides robust estimates for the divergence times of major lineages within the Florideophyceae and interprets the emergence of key morphological innovations that characterize these multicellular red algae.

Utility of psbA and nSSU for phylogenetic reconstruction in the Corallinales based on New Zealand taxa.

Evolutionary History and Taxonomy of Red Algae

The red algae are unique among eukaryotes in lacking both flagella and centrioles during their entire life cycle, and the monophyly of red algae is strongly supported by nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial gene trees.

Organization of plastid genomes in the freshwater red algal order Batrachospermales (Rhodophyta)

Comparative analyses confirm data for members of the class Florideophyceae that cp genomes in Batrachospermales is highly conserved, with little variation in gene composition, and members of Batrachespermales have the lowest number of protein‐coding genes among the Floridephyceae.

Red Algal Genomics: A Synopsis

A summary is presented of genomic studies targeting this algal group, the Rhodophyta, with suggestions for future research in phylogenomics.



A gene phylogeny of the red algae (Rhodophyta) based on plastid rbcL.

A phylogeny for the Rhodophyta has been inferred by parsimony analysis of plastid rbcL sequences representing 81 species, 68 genera, 38 families, and 17 orders of red algae; rbcL encodes the large

A molecular phylogeny of the marine red algae (Rhodophyta) based on the nuclear small-subunit rRNA gene.

Tests under maximum-likelihood and parsimony of alternative phylogenies based on structure and chemistry refuted suggestions that Acrochaetiales is the most primitive florideophyte order and that Gelidiales and Hildenbrandiales are sister groups.

Phylogeny of the Bangiophycidae (Rhodophyta) and the secondary endosymbiotic origin of algal plastids.

The phylogenies provide strong evidence for the independent origins of these "complex" algal plastids from different members of the Bangiophycidae.

The nature of the ancestral red alga: inferences from a cladistic analysis.

Ribosomal DNA phylogeny of the Bangiophycidae (Rhodophyta) and the origin of secondary plastids.

The results support the independent origins of these secondary algal plastids from different members of the Bangiophycidae and are consistent with a monophyletic origin of the Florideophycaceae, which form a sister-group to the Bangia.

The single, ancient origin of chromist plastids

A taxonomically diverse group of chlorophyll c2-containing protists comprising cryptophyte, haptophyte and stramenopiles algae (Chromista) share a common plastid that most likely arose from a single, ancient secondary endosymbiosis involving a red alga, consistent with Chromista monophyly and implicates secondary endOSymbiotic as an important force in generating eukaryotic biodiversity.

Phylogenetic analysis of tufA sequences indicates a cyanobacterial origin of all plastids.

TufA analyses point to at least two major radiations within eubacteria and their descendants: one of many eubacterial phyla, a second of cyanobacteria, and possibly a third radiation early in plastid evolution.

Systematics of Bangia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) in North America. II. Biogeographical trends in karyology: chromosome numbers and linkage with gene sequence phylogenetic trees

It is proposed to resurrect the name B. atropurpurea to represent this lineage of Bangia, which appears to be some distinct entities among the marine Bangia occurring along North American coastlines, judging by chromosome numbers and gene trees.

A molecular timeline for the origin of photosynthetic eukaryotes.

An ancient (late Paleoproterozoic) origin of photosynthetic eukaryotes with the primary endosymbiosis that gave rise to the first alga having occurred after the split of the Plantae from the opisthokonts sometime before 1,558 MYA is supported.

Tertiary endosymbiosis driven genome evolution in dinoflagellate algae.

These results underline the remarkable ability of dinoflagellates to remodel their genomes through endosymbiosis and the considerable impact of this process on cell evolution.