The southern bent-wing bat (Miniopterus schreibersii bassanii) is an insectivorous, obligate cave dwelling species found in south-eastern South Australia and western Victoria, Australia. In recent times, the finger of blame for an apparent population decline at Bat Cave, Naracoorte (one of only two known maternity roosts for this species, the other being Starlight Cave, Warrnambool) has been pointed at pesticide use in the region, following the finding of organochlorine and organophosphate insecticide residues in bat guano. This study sampled juvenile southern bent-wing bats from Bat Cave and Starlight Cave, and determined DDT, DDD and DDE concentrations in liver, pectoral muscle, brain and back-depot fat tissues. DDT was detected in only three tissue samples (highest concentration, 126 microg kg(-1) (wet weight) in back-depot fat), DDD was detected only in brain tissue (highest concentration, 115 microg kg(-1) (wet weight)), but DDE was detected in most tissues (highest concentration, 24,200 microg kg(-1) (wet weight) in back-depot fat). A minimum DDE body burden was estimated for each bat, and then for each sex at each site, from the data from all tissues sampled. The DDE body burdens estimated were highest in male bats from Starlight Cave (114 microg kg(-1)), then females from Starlight Cave (54.5 microg kg(-1)), and males from Bat Cave (53.2 microg kg(-1)). Female bats at Bat Cave contained the lowest estimated body burden (24.2 microg kg(-1)). Comparisons of DDE concentrations between the sexes showed that contamination was not statistically different within each maternity site. The different chemical concentrations observed in the Bat Cave and Starlight Cave bats is suggestive of different feeding locations, and perhaps an emerging population split, further threatening a species already at risk as a result of landscape scale changes to land use across their range.