D‐Aspartic acid is a novel endogenous neurotransmitter

@article{DAniello2011DAsparticAI,
  title={D‐Aspartic acid is a novel endogenous neurotransmitter},
  author={Salvatore D’Aniello and Ildik{\'o} M. L. Somorjai and Jordi Garcia-Fern{\'a}ndez and Enza Topo and Antimo D’Aniello},
  journal={The FASEB Journal},
  year={2011},
  volume={25},
  pages={1014 - 1027}
}
D‐Aspartic acid (D‐Asp) is present in invertebrate and vertebrate neuroendocrine tissues’ where it carries out important physiological functions and is implicated in nervous system development. We show here that D‐Asp is a novel endogenous neurotransmitter in two distantly related animals’ a mammal (Rattus norvégiens) and a mollusk (Loligo vulgaris). Our main findings demonstrate that D‐Asp is present in high concentrations in the synaptic vesicles of axon terminals;synthesis for this amino… 

Structure and kinetic properties of human d‐aspartate oxidase, the enzyme‐controlling d‐aspartate levels in brain

The first three‐dimensional structure of a DASPO enzyme (from human) which belongs to the d‐amino acid oxidase family is presented and useful insights are provided into the structure‐function relationships of human DAS PO.

New Evidence on the Role of D-Aspartate Metabolism in Regulating Brain and Endocrine System Physiology: From Preclinical Observations to Clinical Applications

The physiological function of free D-Asp and of its metabolizing enzyme in regulating the functions of the brain and of the neuroendocrine system are reviewed based on recent genetic and pharmacological human and animal studies.

Neuromodulatory Activity of d-Aspartate in Mammals

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d -Aspartate, an Atypical Amino Acid with NMDA Receptor Agonist Features: Involvement in Schizophrenia

It has been shown that genetic variation in DDO gene, predicting potential increase in d-aspartate levels in post-mortem prefrontal cortex, is associated with greater prefrontal gray matter and activity during working memory, and a significant reduction of d- aspartate content has been detected in the post- autopsy brain of patients with schizophrenia.

Glyoxylate reductase/hydroxypyruvate reductase regulates the free d‐aspartate level in mammalian cells

The findings show that GRHPR contributes to the homeostasis of these amino acids in mammalian cells, and the effects of GRH PR and peroxisome‐localized DDO on d‐ and l‐aspartate levels in cultured mammalian cells.

The Emerging Role of Altered d-Aspartate Metabolism in Schizophrenia: New Insights From Preclinical Models and Human Studies

Overall, the findings suggest a possible involvement of dysregulated embryonic d-aspartate metabolism in schizophrenia pathophysiology and highlight the potential use of free d- aspartate supplementation as a new add-on therapy for treating the cognitive symptoms of this mental illness.

D-Aspartate treatment stimulates differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursors, prevents demyelination and accelerates remyelination in the cuprizone mouse model of Multiple Sclerosis

The in vitro results suggest that D-Asp stimulates oligodendrocyte development through a mechanism involving calcium signaling through the glutamate receptors AMPA and NMDA and the Na+/Ca23+ exchanger NCX3 plays an important role during oligodendedrocytes differentiation and myelin formation.

Binding and transport of D-aspartate by the glutamate transporter homolog GltTk

It is shown that GltTk transports D-aspartate with identical Na+: substrate coupling stoichiometry as L- aspartate, and that the affinities for the two substrates are similar.

Chiral analysis of amino acid neurotransmitters and neuromodulators in mouse brain by CE‐LIF

The chiral CE method was used for the determination of d‐aspartate and d‐serine content in various brain regions of adult mice.
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