D‐Aspartic acid is a novel endogenous neurotransmitter

  title={D‐Aspartic acid is a novel endogenous neurotransmitter},
  author={Salvatore D’Aniello and Ildik{\'o} M. L. Somorjai and Jordi Garcia-Fern{\'a}ndez and Enza Topo and Antimo D’Aniello},
  journal={The FASEB Journal},
  pages={1014 - 1027}
D‐Aspartic acid (D‐Asp) is present in invertebrate and vertebrate neuroendocrine tissues’ where it carries out important physiological functions and is implicated in nervous system development. We show here that D‐Asp is a novel endogenous neurotransmitter in two distantly related animals’ a mammal (Rattus norvégiens) and a mollusk (Loligo vulgaris). Our main findings demonstrate that D‐Asp is present in high concentrations in the synaptic vesicles of axon terminals;synthesis for this amino… 

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The first three‐dimensional structure of a DASPO enzyme (from human) which belongs to the d‐amino acid oxidase family is presented and useful insights are provided into the structure‐function relationships of human DAS PO.

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Glyoxylate reductase/hydroxypyruvate reductase regulates the free d‐aspartate level in mammalian cells

The findings show that GRHPR contributes to the homeostasis of these amino acids in mammalian cells, and the effects of GRH PR and peroxisome‐localized DDO on d‐ and l‐aspartate levels in cultured mammalian cells.

The Emerging Role of Altered d-Aspartate Metabolism in Schizophrenia: New Insights From Preclinical Models and Human Studies

Overall, the findings suggest a possible involvement of dysregulated embryonic d-aspartate metabolism in schizophrenia pathophysiology and highlight the potential use of free d- aspartate supplementation as a new add-on therapy for treating the cognitive symptoms of this mental illness.

D-Aspartate treatment stimulates differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursors, prevents demyelination and accelerates remyelination in the cuprizone mouse model of Multiple Sclerosis

The in vitro results suggest that D-Asp stimulates oligodendrocyte development through a mechanism involving calcium signaling through the glutamate receptors AMPA and NMDA and the Na+/Ca23+ exchanger NCX3 plays an important role during oligodendedrocytes differentiation and myelin formation.

Binding and transport of D-aspartate by the glutamate transporter homolog GltTk

It is shown that GltTk transports D-aspartate with identical Na+: substrate coupling stoichiometry as L- aspartate, and that the affinities for the two substrates are similar.

Chiral analysis of amino acid neurotransmitters and neuromodulators in mouse brain by CE‐LIF

The chiral CE method was used for the determination of d‐aspartate and d‐serine content in various brain regions of adult mice.



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d-Aspartic acid: An endogenous amino acid with an important neuroendocrine role

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D-serine fulfills criteria for defining its functionality as a neurotransmitter and challenges the dogma relating to neurotransmission, for it is the “unnatural” isomeric form of an amino acid derived from glia rather than neurons.

Cellular and subcellular distribution of D‐aspartate oxidase in human and rat brain

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Data showing that l‐aspartate is released from nerve terminals by calcium‐dependent, exocytotic mechanisms support the neurotransmitter role of this amino acid.