Morphological, histochemical, and chemical study of three necropsy specimens of liver in the terminal stage of Indian Childhood Cirrhosis revealed a strikingly high copper content. it is proposed that excess accumulation of copper in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes disturbs the microtubular system, causing hydropic swelling and the formation of Mallory's hyalin. Copper and copper-binding protein showed topographical association with Mallory's hyalin. Diffuse cytoplasmic staining and the lysosomal copper distribution also suggested that copper had a cytotoxic effect. The pattern of copper distribution in Indian Childhood Cirrhosis differs from that in Wilson's disease and in prolonged cholestasis with excessive hepatic copper deposition, indicating a different mechanism of the copper accumulation.