Anti-CD20 antibody (rituximab) is recently being used as a B cell-depleting agent in renal transplantation (RTx). However, the incidence of infectious complications associated with rituximab therapy remains uncertain. We evaluated the incidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection associated with rituximab therapy in RTx. A total of 83 patients were enrolled. The immunosuppressive regimen consisted of tacrolimus or cyclosporin, mycophenolate mofetil, methylprednisolone and basiliximab. In 54 patients, only one dose of rituximab (200 or 500 mg/kg body weight) was given before RTx. A total of 25 of 43 (58.1%) recipients who were CMV seropositive prior to RTx and who received rituximab induction therapy developed CMV infection, compared to 18 of 24 (75%) CMV seropositive recipients who did not receive rituximab therapy (P = 0.1676). A total of 8 of 11 patients who were CMV seronegative prior to RTx and who received rituximab developed CMV infection. However, CMV seroconversion was seen in all 8 of these infected patients. Low-dose rituximab induction therapy in renal transplant recipients appears to have no influence on the incidence of CMV infection and CMV seroconversion. However, we have to consider anti-CMV prophylaxis therapy, because of high incidents of CMV infection, especially for CMV seronegative recipients who received rituximab.