Cytokines, Graves' disease, and thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy.

  title={Cytokines, Graves' disease, and thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy.},
  author={Andrew G. Gianoukakis and Nicole Miriam Khadavi and Terry J. Smith},
  journal={Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association},
  volume={18 9},
Graves' disease, an autoimmune process associated with thyroid dysfunction, can also manifest as remodeling of orbital connective tissue. Affected tissues exhibit immune responses that appear to be orchestrated by resident cells and those recruited from the bone marrow through their expression and release of cytokines and surface display of cytokine receptors. Cytokines are small molecules produced by many types of cells, including those of the "professional" immune system. Aberrant cytokine… CONTINUE READING
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