Cytokine network in psoriasis revisited.

  title={Cytokine network in psoriasis revisited.},
  author={Anna Michalak-Stoma and Aldona Pietrzak and Jacek Cezary Szepietowski and Anna M. Zalewska-Janowska and Tomasz Paszkowski and Graz̊yna Chodorowska},
  journal={European cytokine network},
  volume={22 4},
Psoriasis is a chronic genetically determined, erythemato-squamous disease associated with many comorbidities. Evidence from clinical studies and experimental models support the concept that psoriasis is a T cell-mediated inflammatory skin disease and T helper (Th) cells - Th1, Th17 and Th22 - play an important role in the pathogenesis. Th1 cytokines IFNγ, IL-2, as well as Th17 cytokines IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-22, IL-26, and TNFα (Th1 and Th17 cytokine) are increased in serum and lesional skin. IL… 

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Results suggested that altered balance between Th1 and Th2 cells transcription factor genes and they products may be implicated in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

Serum Levels of IL-10 and IL-22 Cytokines in Patients with Psoriasis.

The direct correlation between higher levels of IL-22 and disease severity supports the clinical implication of this cytokine in psoriasis.

Review paper Psoriasis as a disease associated with the immune system disorders

The etiopathogenesis of psoriasis has not been fully elucidated and researchers emphasize the systemic and inflammatory character of the disease, its autoimmunological aspect and, above all, its dependence on T cells – Th1, Th17 and recently Th22.

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Th22 subset is a recently identified Th subset and its associated research is extremely limited, therefore, there are still many unanswered questions and further researches are warranted.

Interleukin-26: An Emerging Player in Host Defense and Inflammation

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Analysis of molecular markers as IL-12, IL-22 and IFN-γ in correlation with a clinical course in patients with psoriasis.

Increased expression levels of IL-12B, IL-22 and IFN-γ genes in psoriatic skin confirm that selected cytokines play an important role in the initiation and sustenance of psoriasis.



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The above cytokine network in the pathogenesis of psoriasis has been proven by the therapeutic effectiveness of cytokine-blocking biologics.

Pathophysiology of psoriasis: Recent advances on IL-23 and Th17 cytokines

This review focuses on the numerous recent studies on the roles of IL-23 and Th17 cells in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and suggests that future targeting of these key cytokines is likely to lead to dramatic clinical improvement in patients with Psoriasis.

Th17 cytokines stimulate CCL20 expression in keratinocytes in vitro and in vivo: implications for psoriasis pathogenesis.

It is shown that Th17 cytokines stimulate CCL20 production in vitro and in vivo, and thus provide a potential explanation of how CCR6-positive Th17 cells maintain their continual presence in psoriasis through a positive chemotactic feedback loop.

IL-22 and IL-20 are key mediators of the epidermal alterations in psoriasis while IL-17 and IFN-γ are not

It is suggested that different cytokines are players in the psoriasis pathogenesis although only the IL-10 family members IL-22 and IL-20 directly cause the characteristic epidermal alterations.

Th22 in inflammatory and autoimmune disease: prospects for therapeutic intervention

It has been demonstrated that IL-22 may have promise as a potential therapeutic for chronic inflammatory diseases, and treatment with recombinant cytokine or gene therapy delivery of IL- 22 may alleviate tissue destruction during inflammatory responses.

IL-23 stimulates epidermal hyperplasia via TNF and IL-20R2–dependent mechanisms with implications for psoriasis pathogenesis

Indirect intradermal administration of IL-23 in mouse skin initiates a tumor necrosis factor–dependent, but IL-17A–independent, cascade of events resulting in erythema, mixed dermal infiltrate, and epidermal hyperplasia associated with parakeratosis.

Research in practice: IL‐22 and IL‐20: significance for epithelial homeostasis and psoriasis pathogenesis

  • R. SabatK. Wolk
  • Biology, Medicine
    Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG
  • 2011
IL‐22/IL‐20 lends the reconstructed epidermis a psoriasis‐like appearance with acanthosis, hypogranularity, and hyperkeratosis and a therapy counteracting IL‐22 and IL‐20 would be an innovative treatment with the potential for few side effects that would act on the final phase of Psoriasis pathogenesis.

Resolution of psoriasis upon blockade of IL-15 biological activity in a xenograft mouse model.

An important role for IL-15 in the pathogenesis of psoriasis is supported, as measured by epidermal thickness, grade of parakeratosis, and numbers of inflammatory cells and cycling keratinocytes, with a mAb generated using human immunoglobulin-transgenic mice.

Amelioration of epidermal hyperplasia by TNF inhibition is associated with reduced Th17 responses

It is shown that etanercept has early inhibitory effects on a newly appreciated type of T cells: T helper type 17 (Th17) cells, which may be particularly important in driving epidermal activation in psoriatic plaques whereas Th1 cells must also be eliminated for final disease resolution.

Circulating Th17, Th22, and Th1 cells are increased in psoriasis.

Elevated numbers of circulating inflammatory T cells may contribute to cutaneous inflammation and systemic inflammatory disease that occurs in individuals with psoriasis.