OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of leukoreduction (LR) as compared to standard nonleukoreduced (NLR) units on cytokine concentrations in canine erythrocyte concentrates during regular storage time. DESIGN Randomized, experimental study. SETTING University teaching hospital. ANIMALS Ten random-source research dogs. INTERVENTIONS One unit of whole blood was collected from each dog and randomized to standard processing (NLR, n = 5) or prestorage LR (n = 5). All units were stored at 4°C. Samples were aseptically collected from each unit weekly for 5 weeks. On day 35, 1 mL of blood was collected from each unit and submitted for aerobic culture. MEASUREMENT AND MAIN RESULTS An ELISA assay was used to analyze the concentrations of IL-1β, IL-8, TNF-α, and IL-10. There were no significant effects of either group or storage time for IL-1β, IL-10, or TNF-α. IL-8 concentration was significantly increased over the storage period in NLR units, and was significantly higher compared to LR units on days 28 and 35. Aerobic culture was negative on all units. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrated a marked, storage time-dependent accumulation of IL-8 in canine erythrocyte concentrates. Prestorage LR attenuated the accumulation of IL-8. This chemokine may contribute to the proinflammatory effects of transfusion of stored erythrocyte concentrates.