Cytogenetic biomarkers and genetic polymorphisms.

  title={Cytogenetic biomarkers and genetic polymorphisms.},
  author={Hannu Norppa},
  journal={Toxicology letters},
  volume={149 1-3},
Cytogenetic biomarkers have long been applied in surveillance of human genotoxic exposure and early effects of genotoxic carcinogens. Due to their wide use, it has been possible to evaluate, in international collaborative studies, if a high level of these biomarkers in peripheral lymphocytes is predictive of cancer risk. Thus far, such an association has been observed for chromosomal aberrations (CAs), but not for sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) or micronuclei (MN). The cancer risk… CONTINUE READING