The cytochemical localization of concanavalin A (con A) binding sites has been studied in Purkinje cell axons and presynaptic terminals of rat cerebellum. Smooth membrane cisternae just beneath the axolemma contain con A binding sites on the side of the membrane facing the cisternal space. At certain regions, such as the node of Ranvier, these cisternae lie in virtual apposition to the axolemma. Such a specialized system of cisternae could serve as a channel through which some of the materials synthesized in the Purkinje somata are moved to the axon terminals. The close association of the cisternae and axolemma at certain regions could be a site at which some of the transported materials contribute to renewal of the axolemma. The con A binding sites on intracellular membranes of the Purkinje cell are removed by prior glycosidic and proteolytic enzyme digestions. The results suggest that at least some of the carbohydrates lining membrane cisternae are glycoprotein in nature.