Cyclooxygenase in biology and disease

  title={Cyclooxygenase in biology and disease},
  author={Raymond N. DuBois and Steven B Abramson and Leslie J. Crofford and Rajnish A. Gupta and Lee S Simon and L. B. A. van der Putte and Peter E. Lipsky},
  journal={The FASEB Journal},
  pages={1063 - 1073}
Cyclooxygenase (COX), the key enzyme required for the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins was first identified over 20 years ago. Drugs, like aspirin, that inhibit cyclooxygenase activity have been available to the public for about 100 years. In the past decade, however, more progress has been made in understanding the role of cyclooxygenase enzymes in biology and disease than at any other time in history. Two cyclooxygenase isoforms have been identified and are referred to as COX… 

Cyclooxygenase-2 : Pathway form anti-inflammatory to Anti-cancer drugs

The biology as well as the role of these COX isoenzymes in various prevalent pathophysiological conditions and the revolution in biology over the past two decades has resulted in radically new approaches and opportunities for drug discovery are discussed.

A Pharmacological Review on Cyclooxygenase Enzyme

The activity of cyclo-oxygenase-1 and 2 results in the production of a variety of potent biological mediators (the prostaglandins) that regulate homeostatic and disease processes.

Cyclooxygenase-2 biology.

    J. Clària
    Biology, Medicine
    Current pharmaceutical design
  • 2003
Novel compounds that are selective for this isozyme, the so-called selective COX-2 inhibitors or COXIBs, which retain anti-inflammatory activity but minimize the risk of gastrointestinal toxicity and bleeding, have been developed.

Cyclooxygenase-2 in Carcinogenesis of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Medicine, Biology
  • 2001
The best-known targets of NSAIDs are the Cox enzymes, and Cox-2 (but not Cox-1) is elevated in gastrointestinal carcinomas, and this review focuses on the role of Cox- 2 in carcinogenesis of the gastrointestinal tract.

Regulation of cyclo-oxygenase-2.

The goal of this chapter is to provide a review of the role of cyclo-oxygenase in biology and disease, and to summarize the current understanding of mechanisms for the regulation of COX-2 expression.

Cyclooxygenase Isozymes: The Biology of Prostaglandin Synthesis and Inhibition

Characterization of the two COX isozymes is allowing the discrimination of the roles each play in physiological processes such as homeostatic maintenance of the gastrointestinal tract, renal function, blood clotting, embryonic implantation, parturition, pain, and fever.

Role of prostaglandins in pathogenesis of gastrointestinal cancer

Recent efforts to identify the molecular mechanisms by which COX-2-derived prostanoids exert their proneoplastic effects have provided a rationale for the possible use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs alone or in combination with conventional or experimental anticancer agents for the treatment or prevention of gastrointestinal cancers.

Cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 in rheumatic disease: implications for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy.

    R. Spangler
    Medicine, Biology
    Seminars in arthritis and rheumatism
  • 1996

Renal abnormalities and an altered inflammatory response in mice lacking cyclooxygenase II

An animal model of COX-2 deficiency that was generated by gene targeting failed to alter inflammatory responses in several standard models, but striking mitigation of endotoxin-induced hepatocellular cytotoxicity was observed.

Pharmacological and biochemical demonstration of the role of cyclooxygenase 2 in inflammation and pain.

    K. SeibertY. Zhang P. Isakson
    Medicine, Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1994
In an animal model of acute inflammation, a selective inhibitor of COX-2 inhibited edema at the inflammatory site and was analgesic but had no effect on PG production in the stomach and did not cause gastric toxicity.

COX-1 and COX-2 tissue expression: implications and predictions.

    L. Crofford
    Biology, Medicine
    The Journal of rheumatology. Supplement
  • 1997
It has been proposed that cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 subserve different physiologic functions largely because of the striking differences in their tissue expression and regulation, and it is predicted that highly selective inhibitors of COx-2 will provide effective antiinflammatory activity with marked reduction in toxicity.

Prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase: why two isoforms?

COX-1 null mice survive well, have no gastric pathology, and show less indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration than wild-type mice.

Prostaglandin Endoperoxide H Synthases (Cyclooxygenases)-1 and −2*

This review compares and contrast PGHS-1 and -2 in the context of the regulation of expression of the two enzymes, the mechanisms of enzyme catalysis, and the biological significance of having two PGHSs.

Cyclooxygenase-2 is associated with the macula densa of rat kidney and increases with salt restriction.

The intrarenal distribution of COX-2 and its increased expression in response to sodium restriction suggest that in addition to its proposed role in inflammatory and growth responses, this enzyme may play an important role in the regulation of salt, volume, and blood pressure homeostasis.