Cycliophora is a new phylum with affinities to Entoprocta and Ectoprocta

@article{Funch1995CycliophoraIA,
  title={Cycliophora is a new phylum with affinities to Entoprocta and Ectoprocta},
  author={Peter Funch and Reinhardt M{\o}bjerg Kristensen},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1995},
  volume={378},
  pages={711-714}
}
THE mouthparts of the Norway lobster Nephrops are colonized by an acoelomate metazoan, Symbion pandora gen. et sp. nov. Sessile stages continually produce inner buds replacing feeding structures. They also produce one of three motile stages: (1) larvae containing new feeding stages, (2) dwarf males, which settle on feeding stages, or (3) females, which settle onto lobster mouthparts, and eventually degenerate, giving rise to dispersive larvae. All motile stages are short-lived, and do not feed… Expand
The chordoid larva of Symbion pandora (Cycliophora) is a modified trochophore
  • P. Funch
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Journal of morphology
  • 1996
TLDR
Important morphological observations indicate that, despite some dissimilarities, the chordoid larva of the cycliophoran species, Cycliophora among protostomians is a modified trochophore. Expand
Dwarf male of symbion pandora (cycliophora)
TLDR
It is indicated that the dwarf male is freed from the attached Prometheus larva, which is the ciliated, sexually mature stage in the life cycle of Symbion pandora. Expand
A new species of Cycliophora from the mouthparts of the American lobster, Homarus americanus (Nephropidae, Decapoda)
TLDR
A new species of Cycliophora is described with the aid of light- and electron microscopy, distinguished from the previously described species Symbion pandora by the presence of a posterior pair of retractable tubular appendages or toes in the Prometheus larva. Expand
Comparative myoanatomy of cycliophoran life cycle stages
TLDR
New details on the muscular anatomy of the feeding stage, the attached Prometheus larva, the dwarf male, and the female of one of the two hitherto described species, Symbion pandora are added. Expand
External morphology of the cycliophoran dwarf male: a comparative study of Symbion pandora and S. americanus
TLDR
In both Symbion species, anterior and ventral ciliated fields, as well as paired lateral sensorial organs, were identified, thus confirming previous observations, however, new details are described herein such as the penial pouch that encloses the penis. Expand
Are copepods secondary hosts of Cycliophora?
TLDR
The first evidence of a symbiotic relationship between cycliophorans and organisms other than nephropid lobsters, namely, the harpacticoid copepods are reported. Expand
Relations of the new phylum Cycliophora
TLDR
A phylogenetic analysis of 18S ribosomal RNA sequence data, including a new Symbion sequence, is presented, which places Symbion in a lophophorate-aschelminth-protostome clade and which suggests a sister-group relationship between Cycliophora and a Rotifera-Acanthocephala clade. Expand
Trochophore concepts: ciliary bands and the evolution of larvae in spiralian Metazoa
TLDR
The results favour the conclusion that the trochophore, if defined as a feeding larval form using opposed bands, should not be regarded as an ancestral (= plesiomorphic) type for the Spiralia, or any other large taxon such as the Polychaeta or Mollusca. Expand
Microanatomy and Development of the Dwarf Male of Symbion pandora (Phylum Cycliophora): New Insights from Ultrastructural Investigation Based on Serial Section Electron Microscopy
TLDR
Comparison of three cycliophoran dwarf males at different developmental stages reveals unprecedented insight into the striking morphological and developmental differences that characterize these highly miniaturized male stages both at the level of body organization and at thelevel of cellular ultrastructure. Expand
Spiralian phylogenomics supports the resurrection of Bryozoa comprising Ectoprocta and Entoprocta.
TLDR
The findings suggest that classical developmental and morphological key characters such as cleavage pattern, coelomic cavities, gut architecture, and body segmentation are subject to greater evolutionary plasticity than traditionally assumed. Expand
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