Cybernetic cities: designing and controlling adaptive and robust urban systems

  title={Cybernetic cities: designing and controlling adaptive and robust urban systems},
  author={Carlos Gershenson and Paolo Santi and Carlo Ratti},
  journal={Handbook on Cities and Complexity},
Cities are changing constantly. All urban systems face different conditions from day to day. Even when averaged regularities can be found, urban systems will be more efficient if they can adapt to changes at the same temporal scales at which these occur. Still, the functionality of urban systems must be robust to changes, either caused by adaptation or by other factors. Technology can assist humans in designing and regulating this adaptation and robustness. To achieve this, we propose a… 

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