Effect of two species of cyanobacteria as biofertilizers on some metabolic activities, growth, and yield of pea plant
To estimate diversity, seasonal variation, and phylogeny of the cyanobacterial communities in rice straw placed in nylon mesh bags and left on the soil surface of a paddy field, total DNA was extracted from straw, amplified by polymerase chain reaction targeting 16S rRNA genes of cyanobacteria, and the amplicons were separated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). These DGGE bands were sequenced. The paddy field was under flooded condition after transplanting of rice (Experiment 1) and under drained conditions after harvest (Experiment 2). The residual samples on the soil surface under upland conditions were collected just before spring plowing and were placed again on the soil surface after transplanting under flooded conditions. DGGE band patterns of cyanobacterial communities of rice straw were different under drained conditions, under flooded conditions when fresh rice straw samples were placed (Experiment 1), and under flooded conditions when residual rice straw samples were replaced (Experiment 2), indicating that the communities were influenced by both water regime of the paddy field and the degree of the rice straw decomposition. Sequence analysis of DGGE bands indicated that most of the cyanobacteria in rice straw on the soil surface in the paddy field were filamentous members belonging to Subsections III and IV. Filamentous cyanobacterial cells were observed in rice straw under flooded conditions by epifluorescence microscopy.