Cyanide and Amygdalin as Indicators of the Presence of Bitter Almonds in Imported Raw Almonds

  title={Cyanide and Amygdalin as Indicators of the Presence of Bitter Almonds in Imported Raw Almonds},
  author={Valerie M. Toomey and Elisa A Nickum and Cheryl L. Flurer},
  journal={Journal of Forensic Sciences},
Abstract:  Consumer complaints received by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in August 2010 about raw organic almonds tasting “bitter” opened an investigation into the presence of bitter almonds in the imported product. Bitter almonds (Prunus amygdalus) contain the cyanogenic glucoside amygdalin, which hydrolyzes to produce cyanide. Ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry was used to detect and quantitate cyanide, and liquid chromatography‐mass spectrometry was utilized to detect amygdalin in… 
Comparison of amygdalin and benzaldehyde levels in California almond (Prunus dulcis) varietals
Almonds (Prunus dulcis), are characterized into three flavor phenotypes: bitter, semi-bitter and sweet. Amygdalin is a cyanogenic diglucoside responsible for bitterness in almonds. Studies have shown
Quantification of amygdalin in nonbitter, semibitter, and bitter almonds (Prunus dulcis) by UHPLC-(ESI)QqQ MS/MS.
The results suggest that phenotype classification of almonds may be achieved on the basis of amygdalin levels, and suggest that growing region had a statistically significant effect on the Amygdalin concentration in commercial varieties.
A Systematic Review of Phytochemical and Phytotherapeutic Characteristics of Bitter Almond
This study comprehensively review the traditional uses, phytochemical compounds, and therapeutic actions of bitter almond and its compound as well as the side effects due to use of them.
Amygdalin: Toxicity, Anticancer Activity and Analytical Procedures for Its Determination in Plant Seeds
The aim of this review is to present the current state of knowledge on the sources, toxicity and anticancer properties of amygdalin, and analytical methods for its determination in plant seeds.
A review on some properties of almond: ımpact of processing, fatty acids, polyphenols, nutrients, bioactive properties, and health aspects
  • M. Özcan
  • Journal of Food Science and Technology
  • 2022
This review was focused on the proximate compounds, nutritional values, total phenolic, flavonoid, antioxidant activity, fatty acid profile, polyphenols, health aspects and uses of almond kernel and
Demonstrating the Presence of Cyanide in Bitter Seeds while Helping Students Visualize Metal–Cyanide Reduction and Formation in a Copper Complex Reaction
An activity for hydrogen cyanide detection in bitter seeds is presented. The procedure is based on the absorption of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) from a mixture of chopped seeds into a ninhydrin or
Overview of Recent Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry-Based Methods for Natural Toxins Detection in Food Products
Natural toxins include a wide range of toxic metabolites also occurring in food and products, thus representing a risk for consumer health. In the last few decades, several robust and sensitive
Inflammation: Natural Resources and Its Applications
Through this book, the richness of nature is going to be explored, its kindness towards human race and purpose for the whole world is explored.
Importance of cyanogenic glycosides in the flavor of almond fruits (Prunus dulcis Miller) and their impact on agribusiness
El estudio permitio clasificar 29 variedades de almendras atendiendo la concentracion de amigdalina y prunasina en los tres subgrupos de manera a priori (dulce, ligeramente amargo y amargo) para su posible utilizacion en the agroindustria.


Noninvasive Assay for Cyanogenic Constituents in Plants by Raman Spectroscopy: Content and Distribution of Amygdalin in Bitter Almond (Prunus Amygdalus)
The ability of Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy to measure cyanogenic glycoside amygdalin was investigated using a standard addition series in which amygdalin (0–700 nmol/mg) was added to ground
Bitterness in Almonds1[C][OA]
Combined data show that in the bitter genotypes, prunasin synthesized in the tegument is transported into the cotyledon via the transfer cells and converted into amygdalin in the developing almond seed, whereas in the sweet genotype, Amygdalin formation is prevented because thePrunasin is degraded upon passage of the β-glucosidase-rich cell layer in the inner epidermis of the teGument.
Cyanide content of the leaves and stems of edible aroids
The edible aroids taro (Colocasia esculenta), tannia (Xanthosoma violaceum), giant taro (Alocasia macrorrhizos), giant swamp taro (Cyrtosperma chamissonis) and elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus
Analysis of cyanide in cassava using acid hydrolysis of cyanogenic glucosides
An acid hydrolysis method was developed for cyanide analysis in cassava and gave reasonable agreement with results obtained by the use of linamarase, and adequate recoveries of added linamarin (70–95% dependent on conditions).
Pattern of the Cyanide-Potential in Developing Fruits : Implications for Plants Accumulating Cyanogenic Monoglucosides (Phaseolus lunatus) or Cyanogenic Diglucosides in Their Seeds (Linum usitatissimum, Prunus amygdalus).
The absolute cyanide content of developing fruits was determined in Costa Rican wild lima beans, oil flax, and bitter almonds, finding that the flax inflorescence had a higher HCN-p in absolute terms than the mature flax fruit.
Cyanide poisoning after bitter almond ingestion.
Find out more about cholestasis combined with peripheral pulmonary stenosis and other anomalies, and how cholestyramine therapy in intrahepatic biliary atresia helps to correct these anomalies.
Bitterness in almonds
  • Plant Physiol 2008;146:1040–52
  • 2008
Confirmation of amygdalin in apricot kernels and pharmaceutical formulations by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Washington, DC: US Food and Drug Administration
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Breeding plantation tree crops. Temperate species
This volume is devoted to temperate fruits including two stone fruits, apricot and plums, three pome fruits, apple, pear and Citrus, a small fruit, raspberry, and two tree nuts, almond and walnut and contributes effectively to presenting and understanding all aspects of breeding and crop production.