Cutibacterium (formerly Propionibacterium) acnes infections associated with implantable devices.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION Cutibacterium acnes (C. acnes), a Gram-positive biofilm-forming rod implicated in acne vulgaris, is increasingly recognized for its role in implant-associated infections. The diagnosis of C. acnes implant-associated infections remains challenging. The optimal treatment is a combination of both surgical intervention and antibiotic therapy. Areas Covered: In this review, we discuss the different types of implant-associated infections caused by C. acnes. We also highlight the clinical manifestations pertaining to the various sites of infection, and identify several risk factors previously reported in the literature. We then cover the diagnostic laboratory markers, such as IL-6 and AD-1, optimizing C. acnes recovery in culture, and the specific molecular techniques. Finally, we examine the various effective antibiotic regimens and identify some preventive methods against C. acnes infections. Expert Commentary: Biomarkers such as IL-6 and AD-1 should be further investigated for the diagnosis of C. acnes implant-associated infections. The use of 16S rRNA gene sequencing and other molecular techniques should be further explored in this setting. Longer incubation periods should be requested whenever C. acnes infection is suspected. If the clinical suspicion is high, sonication of the excised implant should be encouraged. Research should focus on developing effective anti-biofilm agents. Finally, preventive methods such as hair removal prior to surgery should be further explored.

DOI: 10.1080/14787210.2017.1404452

Cite this paper

@article{Gharamti2017CutibacteriumP, title={Cutibacterium (formerly Propionibacterium) acnes infections associated with implantable devices.}, author={Amal A Gharamti and Zeina A. Kanafani}, journal={Expert review of anti-infective therapy}, year={2017} }