New epidemiological pattern of cutaneous leishmaniasis in two pre-Saharan arid provinces, southern Morocco.
In the past decade in Morocco, there has been a reactivation of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) foci with an unusual long outbreak episode. The aims of this review article were to update our knowledge of this disease in Morocco, to compare the situation with that prevailing in the other countries of the Maghreb region and to highlight factors that could be responsible for the current situation. The data indicate a global increase of ZCL incidence in the other Maghreb countries. Several factors could be influencing this increase but most of them will depend on human activities. On the other hand, ZCL is particularly sensitive to climate changes acting on the vector and the reservoir. An analysis of prevention strategies against the disease in Morocco and the other Maghreb countries highlights the need for integrated regional control measures in all the countries of the region.